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The epidemiological signature of influenza B virus and its B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in the 21st century

Saverio Caini 1, * Gabriela Kusznierz 2 Verònica Vera Garate 2 Sonam Wangchuk 3 Binay Thapa 3 Francisco José de Paula Júnior 4 Walquiria Aparecida Ferreira de Almeida 4 Richard Njouom 5 Rodrigo Fasce 6 Patricia Bustos 6 Luzhao Feng 7 Zhibin Peng 7 Jenny Lara Araya 8 Alfredo Bruno 9 Doménica de Mora 9 Mónica Jeannette Barahona de Gámez 10 Richard Pebody 11 Maria Zambon 11 Rocio Higueros 12 Rudevelinda Rivera 13 Herman Kosasih 14 Maria Rita Castrucci 15 Antonino Bella 15 Hervé Kadjo 16 Coulibaly Daouda 17 Ainash Makusheva 18 Olga Bessonova 18 Sandra Chaves 19, 20 Gideon Emukule 20 Jean-Michel Heraud 21 Norosoa Razanajatovo 21 Amal Barakat 22 Fatima El Falaki 22 Adam Meijer 23 Gé Donker 1 Q. Sue Huang 24 Tim Wood 24 Angel Balmaseda 25 Rakhee Palekar 26 Brechla Moreno Arévalo 27 Ana Paula Rodrigues 28 Raquel Guiomar 28 Vernon Jian Ming Lee 29 Li Wei Ang 29 Cheryl Cohen 30, 31 Florette Treurnicht 30 Alla Mironenko 32 Olha Holubka 32 Joseph Bresee 19 Lynnette Brammer 19 Mai Le 33 Phuong Hoang 33 Clotilde El Guerche-Séblain 34 John Paget 1 The Global Influenza B Study Team
* Corresponding author
Abstract : We describe the epidemiological characteristics, pattern of circulation, and geographical distribution of influenza B viruses and its lineages using data from the Global Influenza B Study. We included over 1.8 million influenza cases occurred in thirty-one countries during 2000-2018. We calculated the proportion of cases caused by influenza B and its lineages; determined the timing of influenza A and B epidemics; compared the age distribution of B/ Victoria and B/Yamagata cases; and evaluated the frequency of lineage-level mismatch for the trivalent vaccine. The median proportion of influenza cases caused by influenza B virus was 23.4%, with a tendency (borderline statistical significance, p = 0.060) to be higher in tropical vs. temperate countries. Influenza B was the dominant virus type in about one every seven seasons. In temperate countries, influenza B epidemics occurred on average three weeks later than influenza A epidemics; no consistent pattern emerged in the tropics. The two B lineages caused a comparable proportion of influenza B cases globally, however the B/Yamagata was more frequent in temperate countries, and the B/Victoria in the tropics (p = 0.048). B/Yamagata patients were significantly older than B/Victoria patients in almost all countries. A lineage-level vaccine mismatch was observed in over 40% of seasons in temperate countries and in 30% of seasons in the tropics. The type B virus caused a substantial proportion of influenza infections globally in the 21 st century, and its two virus lineages differed in terms of age and geographical distribution of patients. These findings will help inform health policy decisions aiming to reduce disease burden associated with seasonal influenza.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, June 8, 2021 - 4:43:29 PM
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Saverio Caini, Gabriela Kusznierz, Verònica Vera Garate, Sonam Wangchuk, Binay Thapa, et al.. The epidemiological signature of influenza B virus and its B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in the 21st century. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2019, 14 (9), pp.e0222381. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0222381⟩. ⟨pasteur-03254270⟩



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