Multiple independent introductions of Plasmodium falciparum in South America.

Erhan Yalcindag 1, * Eric Elguero 1, * Céline Arnathau 1 Patrick Durand 1 Jean Akiana 2 Timothy J Anderson 3 Agnes Aubouy 4 François Balloux 5 Patrick Besnard 6 Hervé Bogreau 7 Pierre Carnevale 8 Umberto d'Alessandro 9 Didier Fontenille 1 Dionicia Gamboa 10 Thibaut Jombart 5 Jacques Le Mire 6 Eric Leroy 1, 11, 12 Amanda Maestre 13 Mayfong Mayxay 14 Didier Ménard 15 Lise Musset 16 Paul N Newton 14 Dieudonné Nkoghé 11, 12 Oscar Noya 17, 18 Benjamin Ollomo 11, 12 Christophe Rogier 7 Vincent Veron 19 Albina Wide 17, 18 Sedigheh Zakeri 20 Bernard Carme 19 Eric Legrand 16 Christine Chevillon 1 Francisco J Ayala 21, * François Renaud 1, * Franck Prugnolle 1, *
Abstract : The origin of Plasmodium falciparum in South America is controversial. Some studies suggest a recent introduction during the European colonizations and the transatlantic slave trade. Other evidence--archeological and genetic--suggests a much older origin. We collected and analyzed P. falciparum isolates from different regions of the world, encompassing the distribution range of the parasite, including populations from sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and South America. Analyses of microsatellite and SNP polymorphisms show that the populations of P. falciparum in South America are subdivided in two main genetic clusters (northern and southern). Phylogenetic analyses, as well as Approximate Bayesian Computation methods suggest independent introductions of the two clusters from African sources. Our estimates of divergence time between the South American populations and their likely sources favor a likely introduction from Africa during the transatlantic slave trade.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 7, 2012 - 7:50:40 PM
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Erhan Yalcindag, Eric Elguero, Céline Arnathau, Patrick Durand, Jean Akiana, et al.. Multiple independent introductions of Plasmodium falciparum in South America.. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , National Academy of Sciences, 2012, 109 (2), pp.511-6. ⟨10.1073/pnas.1119058109⟩. ⟨pasteur-00705564⟩

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