L. Simonsen, The global impact of influenza on morbidity and mortality, Vaccine, vol.17, pp.3-10, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00099-7

J. Castilla, Estimating the impact of the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic on mortality in the elderly in Navarre, Spain, Eurosurveillance, vol.15, 2010.

R. Perez-padilla, Pneumonia and Respiratory Failure from Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.361, issue.7, pp.680-689, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa0904252

C. Viboud, W. Alonso, and L. Simonsen, Influenza in Tropical Regions, PLoS Medicine, vol.342, issue.4, p.89, 2006.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030089.t001

M. Yazdanbakhsh and P. Kremsner, Influenza in Africa, PLoS Medicine, vol.35, issue.12, p.1000182, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000182

L. Randrianasolo, Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar, BMC Public Health, vol.3, issue.1, p.31, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/1472-6947-3-2

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00589394

R. Development and C. Team, R : A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria : R Foundation for Statistical Computing, 2010.

M. Gail, A bibliography and comments on the use of statistical models in epidemiology in the 1980s, Statistics in Medicine, vol.8, issue.12, pp.1819-1885, 1991.
DOI : 10.1002/sim.4780101204

T. Rhodes and S. Freitas, Advanced Statistical Analysis of Mortality, 2004.

W. Team, Outbreak of influenza , Madagascar, Eurosurveillance, vol.7, pp.172-174, 2002.

M. Miller, Mortality and morbidity burden associated with A/H1N1pdm influenza virus, PLoS Currents, vol.1, p.1013, 2009.

M. Lemaitre and F. Carrat, Comparative age distribution of influenza morbidity and mortality during seasonal influenza epidemics and the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.374, issue.9707, p.162, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61638-X

G. Khandaker, Systematic review of clinical and epidemiological features of the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, vol.6, issue.7, pp.148-156, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00199.x

C. Murray, Estimation of potential global pandemic influenza mortality on the basis of vital registry data from the 1918???20 pandemic: a quantitative analysis, The Lancet, vol.368, issue.9554, pp.2211-2218, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69895-4

K. Kunisaki and E. Janoff, Influenza in immunosuppressed populations: a review of infection frequency, morbidity, mortality, and vaccine responses, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol.9, issue.8, pp.493-504, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70175-6

R. Serfling, Methods for Current Statistical Analysis of Excess Pneumonia-Influenza Deaths, Public Health Reports (1896-1970), vol.78, issue.6, pp.494-506, 1963.
DOI : 10.2307/4591848

N. Razanajatovo, Viral Etiology of Influenza-Like Illnesses in Antananarivo, Madagascar, July 2008 to June 2009, PLoS ONE, vol.116, issue.3, p.17579, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0017579.s003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00589322

P. Chan, Distinguishing Characteristics between Pandemic 2009???2010 Influenza A (H1N1) and Other Viruses in Patients Hospitalized with Respiratory Illness, PLoS ONE, vol.48, issue.3, p.24734, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0024734.t006