Alterations in DNA metabolism in Elliptio complanata mussels after exposure to municipal effluents.

Abstract : This study sought to examine the genotoxic potential in Elliptio complanata freshwater mussels exposed to a physically and chemically treated municipal effluent before and after ozone treatment. Mussels were continuously exposed to increasing concentrations of the effluents for 14 days. Genotoxicity was determined by tracking changes in key enzymes for purine and pyrimidine synthesis (dehydrofolate reductase and aspartate transcarbamoylase), catabolism of purines (xanthine oxido-reductase) and DNA strand-break levels as determined by the alkaline precipitation assay. Other biomarkers related to xenobiotic biotransformation (cytochrome P4503A and glutathione S-transferase activities), metal metabolism (labile zinc and redox state of metathioneins) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase activity) were also determined in the mussels. The data revealed that dehydrofolate reductase activity was reduced by the initial effluent and increased by the ozonated effluent. Aspartate transcarbamoylase activity was significantly induced only with the ozonated effluent. The levels of DNA strand breaks responded in a biphasic manner in mussels exposed to the physically and chemically treated effluent where an initial decrease was observed at a low effluent concentration (3% v/v) followed by an increase in DNA strand breaks at a higher effluent concentration (20%). This response pattern was lost in the ozonated effluent, where only a decrease in DNA breaks was found. Xanthine oxidoreductase activity was not significantly affected but did correlate significantly with dehydrofolate reductase activity. Multivariate factorial and canonical analyses revealed that oxidative stress and metal/xenobiotic metabolism markers were strongly correlated with DNA strand breaks in mussels, suggesting that the presence of metals (zinc) and planar hydroxylated hydrocarbons present in these effluents were strong contributors to the observed response. We conclude that municipal effluents contain a complex mixture of pollutants that could modulate DNA synthesis and repair mechanisms in mussels.
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F. Gagné, C. André, P. Cejka, R. Hausler, M. Fournier. Alterations in DNA metabolism in Elliptio complanata mussels after exposure to municipal effluents.. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology, Elsevier, 2011, 154 (2), pp.100-7. ⟨10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.03.009⟩. ⟨pasteur-00722410⟩

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