F. Al-yaman, B. Genton, K. J. Kramer, S. P. Chang, G. S. Hui et al., Assessment of the role of naturally acquired antibody levels to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 in protecting Papua New Guinean children from malaria morbidity, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.54, pp.443-448, 1996.

M. J. Blackman, H. G. Heidrich, S. Donachie, J. S. Mcbride, and A. A. Holder, A single fragment of a malaria merozoite surface protein remains on the parasite during red cell invasion and is the target of invasion- inhibiting antibodies, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.172, issue.1, pp.379-382, 1990.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.172.1.379

M. J. Blackman, I. T. Ling, S. C. Nicholls, and A. A. Holder, Proteolytic processing of thePlasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 produces a membrane-bound fragment containing two epidermal growth factor-like domains, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol.49, issue.1, pp.29-33, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-6851(91)90127-R

E. M. Braga, R. M. Barros, T. A. Reis, C. J. Fontes, C. G. Morais et al., Association of the IgG response to Plasmodium falciparum merozoite protein (C-terminal 19 kDa) with clinical immunity to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon region. Am, J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.66, pp.461-466, 2002.

L. M. Camargo, G. M. Dal-colletto, M. U. Ferreira, M. Sde, A. L. Escobar et al., Hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (Brazil, western Amazon region): seasonal variation and risk groups in an urban locality. Am, J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.55, pp.32-38, 1996.

L. M. Camargo, M. U. Ferreira, H. Krieger, E. P. De-camargo, D. Silva et al., Unstable hypoendemic malaria in Rondonia (Western Amazon Region, Brazil): epidemic outbreaks and work-associated incidence in an agro-industrial rural settlement, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.51, pp.16-25, 1994.

S. P. Chang, H. L. Gibson, C. T. Lee-ng, P. J. Barr, and G. S. Hui, A carboxyl-terminal fragment of Plasmodium falciparum gp195 expressed by a recombinant baculovirus induces antibodies that completely inhibit parasite growth, J. Immunol, vol.149, pp.548-555, 1992.

J. A. Chappel and A. A. Holder, Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit Plasmodium falciparum invasion in vitro recognise the first growth factor-like domain of merozoite surface protein-1, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol.60, issue.2, pp.303-311, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-6851(93)90141-J

S. Cohen, I. A. Mcgregor, and S. Carrington, Gamma-Globulin and Acquired Immunity to Human Malaria, Nature, vol.31, issue.4804, pp.733-737, 1961.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.70.2.141

A. A. Mehrizi, IgG subclass antibodies to three variants of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (PfMSP-1 19 ) in an area with unstable malaria transmission in Iran, Please cite this article in press as, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00754978

J. A. Cooper, L. T. Cooper, and A. J. Saul, Mapping of the region predominantly recognized by antibodies to the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface antigen MSA 1, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol.51, issue.2, pp.301-312, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-6851(92)90080-4

D. Silveira, L. A. Ribeiro, W. L. Kirchgatter, K. Wunderlich, G. Matsuoka et al., Sequence Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium within the Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (Msp-1) Locus of Plasmodium falciparum: A Longitudinal Study in Brazil, The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, vol.241, issue.4, pp.433-439, 2001.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.186.10.1689

T. O. Diallo, A. Spiegel, A. Diouf, L. Lochouarn, D. C. Kaslow et al., Short report: differential evolution of immunoglobulin G1/G3 antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparum MSP1 (19) over time in malaria-immune adult Senegalese patients. Am, J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.66, pp.137-139, 2002.

A. F. Egan, J. A. Chappel, P. A. Burghaus, J. S. Morris, J. S. Mcbride et al., Serum Antibodies from malaria-exposed people recognize conserved epitopes formed by the two epidermal growth factor motifs of MSP1 (19) , the carboxyl-terminal fragment of the major merozoite surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum, Infect. Immun, vol.63, pp.456-466, 1995.

A. F. Egan, J. Morris, G. Barnish, S. Allen, B. M. Greenwood et al., Clinical Immunity to Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Is Associated with Serum Antibodies to the 19-kDa C-Terminal Fragment of the Merozoite Surface Antigen, PfMSP-l, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.173, issue.3, pp.765-769, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/173.3.765

A. A. Escalante, A. A. Lal, and F. J. Ayala, Genetic polymorphism and natural selection in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, Genetics, vol.149, pp.189-202, 1998.

M. U. Ferreira, E. A. Kimura, J. M. De-souza, and A. M. Katzin, The isotype composition and avidity of naturally acquired anti-Plasmodium falciparum antibodies: differential patterns in clinically immune Africans and Amazonian patients, Am, 1996.

K. Hedman, M. Lappalainen, I. Seppaia, and O. Makela, Recent Primary Toxoplasma Infection Indicated by a Low Avidity of Specific IgG, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.159, issue.4, pp.736-740, 1989.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/159.4.736

A. A. Holder, Proteins on the surface of the malaria parasite and cell invasion, Parasitology, vol.41, issue.S1, pp.5-18, 1994.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.156.5.1528

M. K. Hughes and A. L. Hughes, Natural selection on Plasmodium surface proteins, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol.71, issue.1, pp.99-113, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-6851(95)00037-2

G. S. Hui, C. Hashiro, C. Nikaido, S. E. Case, A. Hashimoto et al., Immunological cross-reactivity of the C-terminal 42-kilodalton fragment of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein expressed in baculovirus, Infect. Immun, vol.61, pp.3403-3411, 1993.

S. Ladeia-andrade, M. U. Ferreira, K. K. Scopel, E. M. Braga, S. Bastos-mda et al., Naturally acquired antibodies to merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1(19) and cumulative exposure to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in remote populations of the Amazon Basin of Brazil, Mem??rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.102, issue.8, pp.943-951, 2007.
DOI : 10.1590/S0074-02762007000800009

J. Langhorne, F. M. Ndungu, A. M. Sponaas, and K. Marsh, Immunity to malaria: more questions than answers, Nature Immunology, vol.117, issue.7, pp.1-8, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/ni.f.205

F. M. Leoratti, R. R. Durlacher, M. V. Lacerda, M. G. Alecrim, A. W. Ferreira et al., Pattern of humoral immune response to Plasmodium falciparum blood stages in individuals presenting different clinical expressions of malaria, Malaria Journal, vol.7, issue.1, p.186, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1475-2875-7-186

C. A. Long and T. M. Daly, Humoral response to a carboxyl-terminal region of the merozoite surface protein-1 plays a predominant role in controlling blood-stage infection in rodent malaria, J. Immunol, vol.155, pp.236-243, 1995.

A. Mamillapalli, S. Sunil, S. S. Diwan, S. K. Sharma, P. K. Tyagi et al., Polymorphism and epitope sharing between the alleles of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum among Indian isolates, Malaria Journal, vol.6, issue.1, p.95, 2007.
DOI : 10.1186/1475-2875-6-95

K. Marsh and R. W. Snow, Host--parasite interaction and morbidity in malaria endemic areas, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.352, issue.1359, pp.1385-1394, 1997.
DOI : 10.1098/rstb.1997.0124

A. A. Mehrizi, S. Zakeri, A. H. Salmanian, M. H. Sanati, and N. D. Djadid, Plasmodium falciparum: Sequence analysis of the gene encoding the C-terminus region of the merozoite surface protein-1, a potential malaria vaccine antigen, in Iranian clinical isolates, Experimental Parasitology, vol.118, issue.3, pp.378-385, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.exppara.2007.10.001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00751797

A. A. Mehrizi, S. Zakeri, A. H. Salmanian, M. H. Sanati, and N. D. Djadid, IgG subclasses pattern and high-avidity antibody to the C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein 1 of Plasmodium vivax in an unstable hypoendemic region in Iran, Acta Tropica, vol.112, issue.1, pp.1-7, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.actatropica.2009.05.016

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00751818

L. H. Miller, T. Roberts, M. Shahabuddin, and T. F. Mccutchan, Analysis of sequence diversity in the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol.59, issue.1, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-6851(93)90002-F

I. Nebie, A. Diarra, A. Ouedraogo, I. Soulama, E. C. Bougouma et al., Humoral Responses to Plasmodium falciparum Blood-Stage Antigens and Association with Incidence of Clinical Malaria in Children Living in an Area of Seasonal Malaria Transmission in Burkina Faso, West Africa, Infection and Immunity, vol.76, issue.2, pp.759-766, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01147-07

C. M. Nguer, T. O. Diallo, A. Diouf, A. Tall, A. Dieye et al., Plasmodium falciparum and merozoite surface protein 1-specific antibody isotype balance in immune Senegalese adults, Infect. Immun, vol.65, pp.4873-4876, 1997.

S. C. Oaks, V. S. Mitchell, G. W. Pearson, and C. J. Carpenter, Malaria: Obstacles and Opportunities, 1991.

Y. O. Omosun, C. I. Anumudu, S. Adoro, A. Odaibo, O. Sodiende et al., Variation in the relationship between anti-MSP-119 antibody response and age in children infected with Plasmodium falciparum during the dry and rainy seasons, Acta Tropica, vol.95, issue.3, pp.233-247, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.actatropica.2005.06.019

F. H. Osier, G. Fegan, S. D. Polley, L. Murungi, F. Verra et al., Breadth and Magnitude of Antibody Responses to Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Antigens Are Associated with Protection from Clinical Malaria, Infection and Immunity, vol.76, issue.5, pp.2240-2248, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01585-07

T. L. Richie and A. Saul, Progress and challenges for malaria vaccines, Nature, vol.415, issue.6872, pp.694-701, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/415694a

E. M. Riley, S. J. Allen, J. G. Wheeler, M. J. Blackman, S. Bennett et al., Naturally acquired cellular and humoral immune responses to the major merozoite surface antigen (Pf MSP1) of Plasmodium falciparum are associated with reduced malaria morbidity, Parasite Immunology, vol.140, issue.3, pp.321-337, 1992.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2836(87)90649-8

H. P. Roost, M. F. Bachmann, A. Haag, U. Kalinke, V. Pliska et al., Early high-affinity neutralizing anti-viral IgG responses without further overall improvements of affinity., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.92, issue.5, pp.1257-1261, 1995.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.92.5.1257

A. Sabchareon, T. Burnouf, D. Ouattara, P. Attanath, H. Bouharoun-tayoun et al., Parasitologic and clinical human response to immunoglobulin administration in falciparum malaria, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, vol.45, pp.297-308, 1991.

J. Sachs and P. Malaney, The economic and social burden of malaria, Nature, vol.415, issue.6872, pp.680-685, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/415680a

K. K. Scopel, C. J. Fontes, M. U. Ferreira, and E. M. Braga, Plasmodium falciparum: IgG subclass antibody response to merozoite surface protein-1 among Amazonian gold miners, in relation to infection status and disease expression, Experimental Parasitology, vol.109, issue.2, pp.124-134, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.exppara.2004.12.002

K. K. Scopel, C. J. Fontes, M. U. Ferreira, and E. M. Braga, Factors Associated with Immunoglobulin G Subclass Polarization in Naturally Acquired Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Proteins: a Cross-Sectional Survey in Brazilian Amazonia, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol.13, issue.7, pp.810-813, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/CVI.00095-06

Y. P. Shi, U. Sayed, S. H. Qari, J. M. Roberts, V. Udhayakumar et al., Natural immune response to the C-terminal 19-kilodalton domain of P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1, Infect. Immun, vol.64, pp.2716-2723, 1996.

G. Snounou, S. Viriyakosol, X. P. Zhu, W. Jarra, L. Pinheiro et al., High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction, Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, vol.61, issue.2, pp.315-320, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0166-6851(93)90077-B

S. Soe, M. Theisen, C. Roussilhon, K. S. Aye, and P. Druilhe, Association between Protection against Clinical Malaria and Antibodies to Merozoite Surface Antigens in an Area of Hyperendemicity in Myanmar: Complementarity between Responses to Merozoite Surface Protein 3 and the 220-Kilodalton Glutamate-Rich Protein, Infection and Immunity, vol.72, issue.1, pp.247-252, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.72.1.247-252.2004

D. I. Stanisic, J. S. Richards, F. J. Mccallum, P. Michon, C. L. King et al., Immunoglobulin G Subclass-Specific Responses against Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Antigens Are Associated with Control of Parasitemia and Protection from Symptomatic Illness, Infection and Immunity, vol.77, issue.3, pp.1165-1174, 2009.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.01129-08

M. C. Suarez-mutis, P. Cuervo, F. M. Leoratti, S. L. Moraes-avila, A. W. Ferreira et al., Cross sectional study reveals a high percentage of asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax infection in the Amazon Rio Negro area, Brazil, Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S??o Paulo, vol.49, issue.3, pp.159-164, 2007.
DOI : 10.1590/S0036-46652007000300005

S. L. Takala, D. L. Smith, O. C. Stine, D. Coulibaly, M. A. Thera et al., A high-throughput method for quantifying alleles and haplotypes of the malaria vaccine candidate Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein- 1 19 kDa, Malaria Journal, vol.5, issue.1, p.31, 2006.
DOI : 10.1186/1475-2875-5-31

K. J. Torres, E. H. Clark, J. N. Hernandez, K. E. Soto-cornejo, D. Gamboa et al., Antibody response dynamics to the Plasmodium falciparum conserved vaccine candidate antigen, merozoite surface protein-1 C-terminal 19kD, in Peruvians exposed to hypoendemic malaria transmission, Malaria Journal, vol.7, issue.1, p.173, 2008.
DOI : 10.1186/1475-2875-7-173

V. Udhayakumar, D. Anyona, S. Kariuki, Y. P. Shi, P. B. Bloland et al., Identification of T and B cell epitopes recognized by human in the C-terminal 42-kDa domain of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1, J. Immunol, vol.154, pp.6022-6030, 1995.

L. Wang, L. Crouch, T. L. Richie, D. H. Nhan, and R. L. Coppel, Naturally acquired antibody responses to the components of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 complex, Parasite Immunology, vol.88, issue.8-9, pp.403-412, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0166-6851(98)00045-0

S. Zakeri, A. A. Mehrizi, S. Zoghi, and N. D. Djadid, Non-variant specific antibody responses to the C-terminal region of merozoite surface protein-1 of Plasmodium falciparum (PfMSP-119) in Iranians exposed to unstable malaria transmission, Malaria Journal, vol.9, issue.1, p.257, 2010.
DOI : 10.1186/1475-2875-9-257