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Receptor-independent cellular uptake of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.

Abstract : Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a hypophysiotropic neurohormone, participates in the regulation of pleiotropic functions. The recent discovery of intracellular PACAP receptors in the brain and the testis as well as the physico-chemical characteristics of PACAP, i.e. extended α-helix containing basic residues, prompted us to evaluate the propensity of PACAP to cross the plasma membrane in a receptor-independent manner. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we demonstrated the ability of FITC-conjugated PACAP to efficiently penetrate into the internal cell compartment by direct translocation and endocytosis through clathrin-coated pits and macropinocytosis. Our study also revealed that, once inside the cells, PACAP38 is not entirely degraded by intracellular enzymes and that a significant amount of intact PACAP38 is also able to exit cells. Moreover, using binding assay on rat nuclear fractions from various tissues, PACAP nuclear receptors were identified. We also found that PACAP stimulates calcium release in rat testis nuclei. Interestingly, PACAP27 and PACAP38 but not VIP were able to upregulate de novo DNA synthesis in testis nuclei and that this effect was abolished by PACAP(6-38). These results support the presence of PAC1 receptors at the nuclear membrane and raise questions about their role in the biological activity of the peptide. These findings contribute to the characterization of PACAP as an intracrine factor and suggest that these intracellular PAC1 binding sites, probably associated with specific biological activities, should be taken into account during the development of PACAP-based drugs.
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https://hal-riip.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00819026
Contributor : Charles M. Dozois <>
Submitted on : Monday, April 29, 2013 - 8:11:51 PM
Last modification on : Monday, July 20, 2020 - 1:06:04 PM

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Ngoc-Duc Doan, David Chatenet, Myriam Létourneau, Hubert Vaudry, David Vaudry, et al.. Receptor-independent cellular uptake of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide.. BBA - Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Elsevier, 2012, 1823 (4), pp.940-9. ⟨10.1016/j.bbamcr.2012.02.001⟩. ⟨pasteur-00819026⟩

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