Influenza pathogenesis: lessons learned from animal studies with H5N1, H1N1 Spanish, and pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza.

Abstract : Because cases of highly pathogenic influenza are rare, no systematic clinical studies have evaluated different therapeutic approaches. Instead, treatment recommendations are aimed at the alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms, especially the restoration of respiratory function, and at the inhibition of virus replication, assuming viral load is responsible for disease phenotype. Studies of highly pathogenic influenza in different animal models, especially nonhuman primates and ferrets, reproduce many of the key observations from clinical cases. Host-response kinetics reveal a delayed but broad activation of genes involved in the innate and acquired immune responses (innate responses produce inflammatory responses), which continue after the virus has been cleared and may contribute importantly to the clinical signs observed. Experimental animal models point to an important role for immune dysregulation in the pathogenesis of highly pathogenic influenza. The use of these models to develop and validate therapeutic approaches is just beginning, but published studies reveal the importance of early treatment with antivirals and show the potential and limitations of approaches aimed at the host response.
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Isabelle Meunier, Stéphane Pillet, J Neil Simonsen, Veronika von Messling. Influenza pathogenesis: lessons learned from animal studies with H5N1, H1N1 Spanish, and pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza.. Critical Care Medicine, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, 2010, 38 (4 Suppl), pp.e21-9. ⟨10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181c8b4d5⟩. ⟨pasteur-00819551⟩

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