. Service-de-parasitologie-mycologie, 10 Dept of Pharmacy, King's College London, UPS; UMR152 (Laboratoire de Pharmacochimie des Substances Naturelles et Pharmacophores Redox), F-31062

M. Willcox, G. Burford, B. Gwillcox, M. Bodeker, G. Rasoanaivo et al., An overview of ethnobotanical studies on plants used for the treatment of malaria In Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria. Boca Raton, pp.187-197, 2004.

M. Willcox and G. Bodeker, Plant-based Malaria Control: Research Initiative on Traditional Antimalarial Methods, Parasitology Today, vol.16, issue.6, pp.220-221, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-4758(00)01678-1

A. Krettli, V. Andrade-neto, M. Brandao, and W. Ferrari, The search for new antimalarial drugs from plants used to treat fever and malaria or plants ramdomly selected: a review, Mem??rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.96, issue.8, pp.1033-1042, 2001.
DOI : 10.1590/S0074-02762001000800002

L. Carvalho, M. Brandao, D. Santos-filho, J. Lopes, and A. Krettli, Antimalarial activity of crude extracts from Brazilian plants studied in vivo in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice and in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum in culture, Braz J Med Biol Res, vol.24, pp.1113-1123, 1991.

M. Brandão, M. Botelho, and A. Krettli, Quimioterapia experimental antimalárica com produtos naturais: I. Uma Abordagem mais racional? Ciência e Cultura, pp.1152-1163, 1985.

D. Leaman, J. Arnason, R. Yusuf, H. Sangat-roemantyo, H. Soedjito et al., Malaria remedies of the Kenyah of the Apo Kayan, East Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo: a quantitative assessment of Willcox et al. Malaria Journal, S7 http, 2011.

M. Vigneron, X. Deparis, E. Deharo, and G. Bourdy, Antimalarial remedies in French Guiana: A knowledge attitudes and practices study, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.98, issue.3, pp.351-360, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.049

B. Graz, D. Diallo, J. Falquet, M. Willcox, and S. Giani, Screening of traditional herbal medicine: First, do a retrospective study, with correlation between diverse treatments used and reported patient outcome, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.101, issue.1-3, pp.338-339, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2005.07.008

D. Diallo, B. Graz, J. Falquet, A. Traore, S. Giani et al., Malaria treatment in remote areas of Mali: use of modern and traditional medicines, patient outcome, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.100, issue.6, pp.515-520, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.08.003

P. Whiting, A. Rutjes, J. Reitsma, P. Bossuyt, and J. Kleijnen, The development of QUADAS: a tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy included in systematic reviews, BMC Medical Research Methodology, vol.273, issue.1, p.25, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.1995.03520290060030

P. Soh and F. Benoit-vical, Are West African plants a source of future antimalarial drugs?, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.114, issue.2, pp.130-140, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2007.08.012

P. Rasoanaivo, E. Deharo, S. Ratsimamanga-urverg, F. Fwillcox, M. Bodeker et al., Guidelines for the non-clinical evaluation of the efficacy of traditional antimalarials, Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria. Boca Raton, pp.255-270, 2004.

W. Peters, Chemotherapy of Malaria, Malaria, pp.145-273, 1980.

I. Landau and P. Gautret, Animal Models: Rodents. In Malaria: Parasite Biology Pathogenesis and Protection, pp.401-417, 1998.

A. Ishih, T. Miyase, K. Ohori, and M. Terada, Different responses of three rodent Plasmodia species,Plasmodium yoelii 17XL,P. berghei NK65 andP. chabaudi AS on treatment with febrifugine and isofebrifugine mixture fromHydrangea macrophylla var.Otaksa leaf in ICR mice, Phytotherapy Research, vol.16, issue.6, pp.650-656, 2003.
DOI : 10.1002/ptr.1219

E. Deharo, M. Krugliak, D. Baccam, and H. Ginsburg, Antimalarial properties of soy-bean fat emulsions, International Journal for Parasitology, vol.25, issue.12, pp.1457-1462, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0020-7519(95)00084-4

M. Willcox and G. Bodeker, Traditional herbal medicines for malaria, BMJ, vol.329, issue.7475, pp.1156-1159, 2004.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.329.7475.1156

M. Willcox, O. Iwillcox, M. Bodeker, G. Rasoanaivo, and P. , Guidelines for clinical studies on herbal antimalarials In Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria. Boca Raton, 2004.

P. Sharma and J. Sharma, Plants showing antiplasmodial activity?from crude extracts to isolated compounds, Indian J Malariol, vol.35, pp.57-110, 1998.

S. Siegel, Nonparametric statistics for the behavioural sciences, 1956.

P. Panda, Clinical study of Caesalpinia crista Linn. (Lata Karanja) in malaria patients, Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Siddha, vol.19, pp.122-127, 1998.

E. Hicks, D. Chand, and S. , The relative clinical Efficacy of Totaquina and Quinine. Records of the Malaria Survey of India, pp.39-50, 1935.

C. Tsu, Chang Shan in the treatment of malaria. Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, pp.75-77, 1947.

J. Ouedraogo, T. Guigemde, M. Traore, S. Traore, Z. Dakuyo et al., Etude de l'efficacite parasitologique de N'Dribala dans le traitement du paludisme, Sciences et Techniques, vol.20, pp.45-53, 1992.

G. Boye, Studies on the antimalarial action of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract, International Symposium on East-West Medicine, pp.242-251, 1989.

M. Mueller, N. Runyambo, I. Wagner, S. Borrmann, K. Dietz et al., Randomized controlled trial of a traditional preparation of Artemisia annua L. (Annual Wormwood) in the treatment of malaria, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.98, issue.5, pp.318-321, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2003.09.001

S. Challand and M. Willcox, in the Treatment of Uncomplicated Malaria, The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol.15, issue.11, pp.1231-1237, 2009.
DOI : 10.1089/acm.2009.0098

F. Benoit-vical, A. Valentin, B. Da, Z. Dakuyo, L. Descamps et al., N???Dribala (Cochlospermum planchonii) versus chloroquine for treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.89, issue.1, pp.111-114, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00277-0

B. Graz, M. Willcox, C. Diakite, J. Falquet, F. Dakouo et al., Argemone mexicana decoction versus artesunate-amodiaquine for the management of malaria in Mali: policy and public-health implications, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.104, issue.1, pp.33-41, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.07.005

W. Fletcher, Critical analysis of ther esults achieved League of Nations: Quarterly Bulletin of the Health Organisation, pp.344-358, 1934.

N. Bugmann, Le concept du paludisme, l'usage et l'efficacite in vivo de trois traitements traditionnels antipalustres dans la region de Dori, Burkina Faso, 2000.

M. Willcox, B. Graz, C. Diakite, J. Falquet, F. Dackouo et al., Is parasite clearance clinically important after malaria treatment in a high transmission area? A 3-month follow-up of home-based management with herbal medicine or ACT, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.105, issue.1
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2010.10.003

M. Willcox, B. Graz, J. Falquet, C. Diakite, S. Giani et al., A new methodology for developing antimalarial phytomedicines, Malar J

M. Willcox, B. Graz, J. Falquet, O. Sidibe, M. Forster et al., Argemone mexicana decoction for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.101, issue.12, pp.1190-1198, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.05.017

G. Butcher and R. Sinden, Persistence of atovaquone in human sera following treatment: inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum development in vivo and in vitro, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.68, pp.111-114, 2003.

E. Hsu, The history of qing hao in the Chinese materia medica, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.100, issue.6, pp.505-508, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.09.020

D. Diallo, A. Maiga, C. Diakite, and M. Willcox, Malarial-5: Development of an antimalarial phytomedicine in Mali, Traditional Medicinal Plants and Malaria. Boca Raton, 2004.

M. Adriaens, Family Medicinal Plant Gardens in the Rwenzori Region, 2005.

A. Asase, A. Oteng-yeboah, G. Odamtten, and M. Simmonds, Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.99, issue.2, pp.273-279, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2005.02.020

M. Baerts and J. Lehmann, L'utilisation de quelques plantes medicinales au Burundi. Tervuren: Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 1993.

S. Challand, A survey of the use of medicinal plants and other traditional medicine in Kasese District, Uganda, Tropical Doctor, vol.35, issue.4, pp.222-224, 2005.
DOI : 10.1258/004947505774938512

T. Gedif and H. Hahn, Treatment of Malaria in Ethiopian Folk Medicine, Tropical Doctor, vol.58, issue.4, pp.206-209, 2002.
DOI : 10.1177/004947550203200408

J. Kokwaro, Medicinal Plants of East Africa, Nairobi: Kenya Literature Bureau, 1993.

J. Tabuti, Herbal medicines used in the treatment of malaria in Budiope county, Uganda, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.116, issue.1, pp.33-42, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2007.10.036

S. Masaba, The antimalarial activity of Vernonia amygdalina Del (Compositae), Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.94, issue.6, pp.694-695, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0035-9203(00)90236-0

B. Iwalokun, Enhanced antimalarial effects of chloroquine by aqueous Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract in mice infected with chloroquine resistant and sensitive Plasmodium berghei strains, Afr Health Sci, vol.8, pp.25-35, 2008.

B. Graz, J. Falquet, and E. Elisabetsky, Ethnopharmacology, sustainable development and cooperation: The importance of gathering clinical data during field surveys, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol.130, issue.3, pp.635-638, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jep.2010.04.044