Intracellular activities of roxithromycin used alone and in association with other drugs against Mycobacterium avium complex in human macrophages.

Abstract : Recent reports have shown that roxithromycin possesses significant activity against atypical mycobacteria, including the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), and that its extracellular anti-MAC activity is further enhanced in two- or three-drug combinations with ethambutol, rifampin, amikacin, ofloxacin, and clofazimine. In accordance with the above data, the anti-MAC potential of roxithromycin used alone and in combination with the above-mentioned antituberculous drugs was screened intracellularly against five clinical MAC isolates (from both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients), phagocytized by human monocyte-derived macrophages. The results showed that roxithromycin used alone and within clinically achievable levels was active against all of the MAC isolates tested. Screening of two-drug combinations showed that both rifampin and clofazimine further increased the intracellular activity of roxithromycin against all five isolates by 35 to 80% (ethambutol, ofloxacin, and amikacin resulted in increased intracellular activity against one, two, and four isolates, respectively). For the three-drug combinations, the combination of roxithromycin plus ethambutol used with rifampin or clofazimine was the most uniformly active against all five MAC isolates, with activity increases of 42 to 90%, followed by roxithromycin plus ethambutol used with amikacin, which resulted in activity increases of 15 to 90%. The overall level of intracellular killing after 5 days of drug addition, in comparison with growth in untreated controls, varied from 1 to 3 log units depending on the individual MAC isolate and/or drug combination used.
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N. Rastogi, V. Labrousse, A. Bryskier. Intracellular activities of roxithromycin used alone and in association with other drugs against Mycobacterium avium complex in human macrophages.. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, American Society for Microbiology, 1995, 39 (4), pp.976-8. ⟨pasteur-00925375⟩

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