A. Aguilera and B. Gómez-gonzález, Genome instability: a mechanistic view of its causes and consequences, Nature Reviews Genetics, vol.16, issue.3, pp.204-217, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nrg2268

F. Allain, Y. Yen, J. Masse, P. Schultze, T. Dieckmann et al., Solution structure of the HMG protein NHP6A and its interaction with DNA reveals the structural determinants for non-sequence-specific binding, The EMBO Journal, vol.18, issue.9, pp.2563-2579, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/18.9.2563

K. Bitterman, R. Anderson, H. Cohen, M. Latorre-esteves, and D. Sinclair, Inhibition of Silencing and Accelerated Aging by Nicotinamide, a Putative Negative Regulator of Yeast Sir2 and Human SIRT1, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.277, issue.47, pp.45099-45107, 2002.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M205670200

C. Brachmann, J. Sherman, S. Devine, E. Cameron, L. Pillus et al., The SIR2 gene family, conserved from bacteria to humans, functions in silencing, cell cycle progression, and chromosome stability., Genes & Development, vol.9, issue.23, pp.2888-2902, 1995.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.9.23.2888

M. Braunstein, R. Sobel, C. Allis, B. Turner, and J. Broach, Efficient transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires a heterochromatin histone acetylation pattern., Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.16, issue.8, pp.4349-4356, 1996.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.16.8.4349

M. Bryk, M. Banerjee, M. Murphy, K. Knudsen, D. Garfinkel et al., Transcriptional silencing of Ty1 elements in the RDN1 locus of yeast., Genes & Development, vol.11, issue.2, pp.255-269, 1997.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.11.2.255

M. Bryk, S. Briggs, B. Strahl, M. Curcio, C. Allis et al., Evidence that Set1, a Factor Required for Methylation of Histone H3, Regulates rDNA Silencing in S. cerevisiae by a Sir2-Independent Mechanism, Current Biology, vol.12, issue.2, pp.165-170, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(01)00652-2

G. Burgio, F. Cipressa, A. Ingrassia, G. Cenci, and D. Corona, The histone deacetylase Rpd3 regulates the heterochromatin structure of Drosophila telomeres, Journal of Cell Science, vol.124, issue.12, pp.2041-2048, 2011.
DOI : 10.1242/jcs.078261

B. Celona, Substantial Histone Reduction Modulates Genomewide Nucleosomal Occupancy and Global Transcriptional Output, PLoS Biology, vol.1219, issue.6, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001086.s009

E. Cesarini, F. Mariotti, F. Cioci, and G. Camilloni, RNA Polymerase I Transcription Silences Noncoding RNAs at the Ribosomal DNA Locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Eukaryotic Cell, vol.9, issue.2, pp.325-335, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/EC.00280-09

F. Cioci, M. Vogelauer, and G. Camilloni, Acetylation and Accessibility of rDNA Chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in ??top1 and ??sir2 Mutants, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.322, issue.1, pp.41-52, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00749-0

W. Dang, K. Steffen, R. Perry, J. Dorsey, F. Johnson et al., Histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation regulates cellular lifespan, Nature, vol.27, issue.7248, pp.802-807, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nature08085

E. Dora, N. Rudin, J. Martell, M. Esposito, and R. Ramírez, RPD3 (REC3) mutations affect mitotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Current Genetics, vol.35, issue.2, pp.68-76, 1999.
DOI : 10.1007/s002940050434

S. Ehrentraut, J. Weber, J. Dybowski, D. Hoffmann, and A. Ehrenhofer-murray, Rpd3-dependent boundary formation at telomeres by removal of Sir2 substrate, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.12, pp.5522-5527, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0909169107

C. Fritze, K. Verschueren, R. Strich, and R. Esposito, Direct evidence for SIR2 modulation of chromatin structure in yeast rDNA, The EMBO Journal, vol.16, issue.21, pp.6495-6509, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/16.21.6495

A. Ganley and T. Kobayashi, Highly efficient concerted evolution in the ribosomal DNA repeats: Total rDNA repeat variation revealed by whole-genome shotgun sequence data, Genome Research, vol.17, issue.2, pp.184-191, 2007.
DOI : 10.1101/gr.5457707

A. Ganley, S. Ide, K. Saka, and T. Kobayashi, The Effect of Replication Initiation on Gene Amplification in the rDNA and Its Relationship to Aging, Molecular Cell, vol.35, issue.5, pp.683-693, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2009.07.012

S. Giavara, E. Kosmidou, M. Hande, M. Bianchi, A. Morgan et al., Yeast Nhp6A/B and Mammalian Hmgb1 Facilitate the Maintenance of Genome Stability, Current Biology, vol.15, issue.1, pp.68-72, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2004.12.065

P. Gottipati and T. Helleday, Transcription-associated recombination in eukaryotes: link between transcription, replication and recombination, Mutagenesis, vol.24, issue.3, pp.203-210, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/mutage/gen072

S. Gottlieb and R. Esposito, A new role for a yeast transcriptional silencer gene, SIR2, in regulation of recombination in ribosomal DNA, Cell, vol.56, issue.5, pp.771-776, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90681-8

H. Histone and H. , termini interact with SIR3 and SIR4 proteins: a molecular model for the formation of heterochromatin in yeast, Cell, vol.80, pp.583-592

S. Holmes, A. Rose, K. Steuerle, E. Saez, S. Sayegh et al., Hyperactivation of the silencing proteins, Sir2p and Sir3p, causes chromosome loss, Genetics, vol.145, pp.605-614, 1997.

G. Hoppe, J. Tanny, A. Rudner, S. Gerber, S. Danaie et al., Steps in Assembly of Silent Chromatin in Yeast: Sir3-Independent Binding of a Sir2/Sir4 Complex to Silencers and Role for Sir2-Dependent Deacetylation, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.22, issue.12, pp.4167-4180, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.22.12.4167-4180.2002

J. Houseley, K. Kotovic, E. Hage, A. Tollervey, and D. , Trf4 targets ncRNAs from telomeric and rDNA spacer regions and functions in rDNA copy number control, The EMBO Journal, vol.273, issue.24, pp.4996-5006, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601921

J. Huang and D. Moazed, Association of the RENT complex with nontranscribed and coding regions of rDNA and a regional requirement for the replication fork block protein Fob1 in rDNA silencing, Genes & Development, vol.17, issue.17, pp.2162-2176, 2003.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1108403

S. Ide, T. Miyazaki, H. Maki, and T. Kobayashi, Abundance of Ribosomal RNA Gene Copies Maintains Genome Integrity, Science, vol.327, issue.5966, pp.693-696, 2010.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1179044

S. Imai, C. Armstrong, M. Kaeberlein, and L. Guarente, Transcriptional silencing and longevity protein Sir2 is an NAD-dependent histone deacetylase, Nature, vol.403, pp.795-800, 2000.

M. Kaeberlein, M. Mcvey, and L. Guarente, The SIR2/3/4 complex and SIR2 alone promote longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by two different mechanisms, Genes & Development, vol.13, issue.19, pp.2570-2580, 1999.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.13.19.2570

T. Kobayashi, Strategies to maintain the stability of the ribosomal RNA gene repeats, Genes & Genetic Systems, vol.81, issue.3, pp.155-161, 2006.
DOI : 10.1266/ggs.81.155

T. Kobayashi and A. Ganley, Recombination Regulation by Transcription-Induced Cohesin Dissociation in rDNA Repeats, Science, vol.309, issue.5740, pp.1581-1584, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1116102

H. Lange, A. Kaut, G. Kispal, and R. Lill, A mitochondrial ferredoxin is essential for biogenesis of cellular iron-sulfur proteins, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.97, issue.3, pp.1050-1055, 2000.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.97.3.1050

C. Li, J. Mueller, and M. Bryk, Sir2 Represses Endogenous Polymerase II Transcription Units in the Ribosomal DNA Nontranscribed Spacer, Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol.17, issue.9, pp.3848-3859, 2006.
DOI : 10.1091/mbc.E06-03-0205

D. Sinclair and L. Guarente, Extrachromosomal rDNA Circles??? A Cause of Aging in Yeast, Cell, vol.91, issue.7, pp.1033-1042, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80493-6

J. Smith and J. Boeke, An unusual form of transcriptional silencing in yeast ribosomal DNA., Genes & Development, vol.11, issue.2, pp.241-254, 1997.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.11.2.241

J. Smith, E. Caputo, and J. Boeke, A Genetic Screen for Ribosomal DNA Silencing Defects Identifies Multiple DNA Replication and Chromatin-Modulating Factors, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.19, issue.4, pp.3184-3197, 1999.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.19.4.3184

D. Smith, . Jr, C. Li, M. Matecic, N. Maqani et al., Calorie restriction effects on silencing and recombination at the yeast rDNA, Aging Cell, vol.426, issue.6, pp.633-642, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1474-9726.2009.00516.x

D. Stillman, Nhp6: A small but powerful effector of chromatin structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms, vol.1799, issue.1-2, pp.175-180, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbagrm.2009.11.010

A. Straight, W. Shou, G. Dowd, C. Turck, R. Deshaies et al., Net1, a Sir2-Associated Nucleolar Protein Required for rDNA Silencing and Nucleolar Integrity, Cell, vol.97, issue.2, pp.245-256, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80734-5

N. Suka, K. Luo, and M. Grunstein, Sir2p and Sas2p opposingly regulate acetylation of yeast histone H4 lysine16 and spreading of heterochromatin, Nature Genetics, vol.408, issue.3, pp.378-383, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/ng1017

Z. Sun and M. Hampsey, A general requirement for the Sin3-Rpd3 histone deacetylase complex in regulating silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genetics, vol.152, pp.921-932, 1999.

M. Tsuchiya, N. Dang, E. Kerr, D. Hu, K. Steffen et al., Sirtuin-independent effects of nicotinamide on lifespan extension from calorie restriction in yeast, Aging Cell, vol.29, issue.6, pp.505-514, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.285.5429.901

L. Vasiljeva, M. Kim, N. Terzi, L. Soares, and S. Buratowski, Transcription Termination and RNA Degradation Contribute to Silencing of RNA Polymerase II Transcription within Heterochromatin, Molecular Cell, vol.29, issue.3, pp.313-323, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2008.01.011

L. Verdone, G. Camilloni, D. Mauro, E. Caserta, and M. , Chromatin remodeling during Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 gene activation., Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.16, issue.5, 1978.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.16.5.1978

M. Vogelauer, F. Cioci, and G. Camilloni, DNA protein-interactions at the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 35 S rRNA promoter and in its surrounding region, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.275, issue.2, pp.197-209, 1998.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.1997.1451

F. Xu, Q. Zhang, K. Zhang, W. Xie, and M. Grunstein, Sir2 Deacetylates Histone H3 Lysine 56 to Regulate Telomeric Heterochromatin Structure in Yeast, Molecular Cell, vol.27, issue.6, pp.890-900, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2007.07.021

B. Yang, A. Miller, and A. Kirchmaier, HST3/HST4-dependent Deacetylation of Lysine 56 of Histone H3 in Silent Chromatin, Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol.19, issue.11, pp.4993-5005, 2008.
DOI : 10.1091/mbc.E08-05-0524

J. Zhou, B. Zhou, B. Lenzmeier, and J. Zhou, Histone deacetylase Rpd3 antagonizes Sir2-dependent silent chromatin propagation, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.37, issue.11, pp.3699-3713, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkp233

URL : http://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkp233

N. Maas, K. Miller, D. Fazio, L. Toczyski, and D. , Cell Cycle and Checkpoint Regulation of Histone H3 K56 Acetylation by Hst3 and Hst4, Molecular Cell, vol.23, issue.1, pp.109-119, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2006.06.006

J. Masse, B. Wong, Y. Yen, F. Allain, R. Johnson et al., The S.cerevisiae Architectural HMGB Protein NHP6A Complexed with DNA: DNA and Protein Conformational Changes upon Binding, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.323, issue.2, pp.263-284, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00938-5

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/insu-01499557

S. Meijsing and A. Ehrenhofer-murray, The silencing complex SAS-I links histone acetylation to the assembly of repressed chromatin by CAF-I and Asf1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genes & Development, vol.15, issue.23, pp.3169-3182, 2001.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.929001

C. Millar, S. Kurdistani, and M. Grunstein, Acetylation of Yeast Histone H4 Lysine 16: A Switch for Protein Interactions in Heterochromatin and Euchromatin, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol.18, issue.0, pp.193-200, 2006.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M302817200

J. Mueller and M. Bryk, Isw1 Acts Independently of the Isw1a and Isw1b Complexes in Regulating Transcriptional Silencing at the Ribosomal DNA Locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.371, issue.1, pp.1-10, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jmb.2007.04.089

J. Mueller, C. Li, and M. Bryk, Isw2 regulates gene silencing at the ribosomal DNA locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.361, issue.4, pp.1017-1021, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.140

Y. Nambu, M. Sugai, H. Gonda, C. Lee, T. Katakai et al., Transcription-Coupled Events Associating with Immunoglobulin Switch Region Chromatin, Science, vol.302, issue.5653, pp.2137-2140, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1092481

M. Nomura, Ribosomal RNA Genes, RNA Polymerases, Nucleolar Structures, and Synthesis of rRNA in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol.48, issue.0, pp.555-565, 2001.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.96.8.4390

M. Oakes, I. Siddiqi, L. Vu, J. Aris, and M. Nomura, Transcription Factor UAF, Expansion and Contraction of Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) Repeats, and RNA Polymerase Switch in Transcription of Yeast rDNA, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.19, issue.12, pp.8559-8569, 1999.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.19.12.8559

M. Oppikofer, S. Kueng, F. Martino, S. Soeroes, S. Hancock et al., A dual role of H4K16 acetylation in the establishment of yeast silent chromatin, The EMBO Journal, vol.36, issue.13, pp.2610-2621, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/emboj.2011.170

T. Petes, Yeast ribosomal DNA genes are located on chromosome XII., Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.76, issue.1, pp.410-414, 1979.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.76.1.410

S. Rundlett, A. Carmen, N. Suka, B. Turner, and M. Grunstein, Transcriptional repression by UME6 involves deacetylation of lysine 5 of histone H4 by RPD3, Nature, vol.392, pp.831-835, 1998.

G. Santangelo, J. Tornow, C. Mclaughlin, and K. Moldave, Properties of promoters cloned randomly from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome., Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.8, issue.10, pp.4217-4224, 1988.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.8.10.4217

F. Sherman, G. Fink, and C. Lawrence, Methods in Yeast Genetics, Cold Spring Harbor, 1983.