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Effects of short-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of different pharmaceutical mixtures on the immune response of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

Abstract : Pharmaceuticals are pollutants of potential concern in the aquatic environment where they are commonly introduced as complex mixtures via municipal effluents. Many reports underline the effects of pharmaceuticals on immune system of non target species. Four drug mixtures were tested, and regrouped pharmaceuticals by main therapeutic use: psychiatric (venlafaxine, carbamazepine, diazepam), antibiotic (ciprofloxacine, erythromycin, novobiocin, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim), hypolipemic (atorvastatin, gemfibrozil, benzafibrate) and antihypertensive (atenolol, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, lisinopril). Their effects were then compared with a treated municipal effluent known for its contamination, and its effects on the immune response of Lymnaea stagnalis. Adult L. stagnalis were exposed for 3 days to an environmentally relevant concentration of the four mixtures individually and as a global mixture. Effects on immunocompetence (hemocyte viability and count, ROS and thiol levels, phagocytosis) and gene expression were related to the immune response and oxidative stress: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), Selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (SeGPx), two isoforms of the nitric oxide synthetase gene (NOS1 and NOS2), molluscan defensive molecule (MDM), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70). Immunocompetence was differently affected by the therapeutic class mixtures compared to the global mixture, which increased hemocyte count, ROS levels and phagocytosis, and decreased intracellular thiol levels. TLR4 gene expression was the most strongly increased, especially by psychiatric mixture (19-fold), while AIF-1, GR and CAT genes were downregulated. A decision tree analysis revealed that the immunotoxic responses caused by the municipal effluent were comparable to those obtained with the global pharmaceutical mixture, and the latter shared similarity with the antibiotic mixture. This suggests that pharmaceutical mixtures in municipal effluents represent a risk for gastropods at the immunocompetence levels and the antibiotic group could represent a model therapeutic class for municipal effluent toxicity studies in L. stagnalis.
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https://hal-riip.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01131048
Contributor : Michel Courcelles <>
Submitted on : Thursday, March 12, 2015 - 6:52:01 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, May 20, 2020 - 8:17:26 PM

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M Gust, M Fortier, J Garric, Martin Fournier, F Gagné. Effects of short-term exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of different pharmaceutical mixtures on the immune response of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.. Science of the Total Environment, Elsevier, 2013, 445-446, pp.210-8. ⟨10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.12.057⟩. ⟨pasteur-01131048⟩

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