Genome-wide small interfering RNA screens reveal VAMP3 as a novel host factor required for Uukuniemi virus late penetration.

Abstract : The Bunyaviridae constitute a large family of enveloped animal viruses, many of which are important emerging pathogens. How bunyaviruses enter and infect mammalian cells remains largely uncharacterized. We used two genome-wide silencing screens with distinct small interfering RNA (siRNA) libraries to investigate host proteins required during infection of human cells by the bunyavirus Uukuniemi virus (UUKV), a late-penetrating virus. Sequence analysis of the libraries revealed that many siRNAs in the screens inhibited infection by silencing not only the intended targets but additional genes in a microRNA (miRNA)-like manner. That the 7-nucleotide seed regions in the siRNAs can cause a perturbation in infection was confirmed by using synthetic miRNAs (miRs). One of the miRs tested, miR-142-3p, was shown to interfere with the intracellular trafficking of incoming viruses by regulating the v-SNARE VAMP3, a strong hit shared by both siRNA screens. Inactivation of VAMP3 by the tetanus toxin led to a block in infection. Using fluorescence-based techniques in fixed and live cells, we found that the viruses enter VAMP3(+) endosomal vesicles 5 min after internalization and that colocalization was maximal 15 min thereafter. At this time, LAMP1 was associated with the VAMP3(+) virus-containing endosomes. In cells depleted of VAMP3, viruses were mainly trapped in LAMP1-negative compartments. Together, our results indicated that UUKV relies on VAMP3 for penetration, providing an indication of added complexity in the trafficking of viruses through the endocytic network. Bunyaviruses represent a growing threat to humans and livestock globally. Unfortunately, relatively little is known about these emerging pathogens. We report here the first human genome-wide siRNA screens for a bunyavirus. The screens resulted in the identification of 562 host cell factors with a potential role in cell entry and virus replication. To demonstrate the robustness of our approach, we confirmed and analyzed the role of the v-SNARE VAMP3 in Uukuniemi virus entry and infection. The information gained lays the basis for future research into the cell biology of bunyavirus infection and new antiviral strategies. In addition, by shedding light on serious caveats in large-scale siRNA screening, our experimental and bioinformatics procedures will be valuable in the comprehensive analysis of past and future high-content screening data.
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Roger Meier, Andrea Franceschini, Peter Horvath, Marilou Tetard, Roberta Mancini, et al.. Genome-wide small interfering RNA screens reveal VAMP3 as a novel host factor required for Uukuniemi virus late penetration.. Journal of Virology, American Society for Microbiology, 2014, 88 (15), pp.8565-78. 〈10.1128/JVI.00388-14〉. 〈pasteur-01136028〉

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