Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.

Matthias Merker 1 Camille Blin 2, 3 Stefano Mona 3, 2 Nicolas Duforet-Frebourg 4 Sophie Lecher 5 Eve Willery 5 Michael G B Blum 4 Sabine Rüsch-Gerdes 6 Igor Mokrousov 7 Eman Aleksic 8 Caroline Allix-Béguec 9 Annick Antierens 10 Ewa Augustynowicz-Kopeć 11 Marie Ballif 12 Francesca Barletta 13 Hans Peter Beck 14 Clifton E Barry 15 Maryline Bonnet 16 Emanuele Borroni 17 Isolina Campos-Herrero 18 Daniela Cirillo 17 Helen Cox Suzanne Crowe 19, 8 Valeriu Crudu Roland Diel 20 Francis Drobniewski 21, 22 Maryse Fauville-Dufaux 23 Sébastien Gagneux 24, 14 Solomon Ghebremichael 25 Madeleine Hanekom 26 Sven Hoffner 25 Wei-Wei Jiao 27 Stobdan Kalon Thomas A Kohl 1 Irina Kontsevaya 28 Troels Lillebæk Shinji Maeda 29 Vladyslav Nikolayevskyy 21 Michael Rasmussen Nalin Rastogi 30 Sofia Samper 31 Elisabeth Sanchez-Padilla Branislava Savic Isdore Chola Shamputa 32, 33 Adong Shen 34 Li-Hwei Sng 35 Petras Stakenas Kadri Toit Francis Varaine 36 Dragana Vukovic 37 Céline Wahl 9 Robin Warren 38 Philip Supply 5, 9 Stefan Niemann 39, 1 Thierry Wirth 40, 41, 3, 2
Abstract : Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage.
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Nature Genetics, Nature Publishing Group, 2015, 47 (3), pp.242-249. 〈10.1038/ng.3195〉
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Matthias Merker, Camille Blin, Stefano Mona, Nicolas Duforet-Frebourg, Sophie Lecher, et al.. Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage.. Nature Genetics, Nature Publishing Group, 2015, 47 (3), pp.242-249. 〈10.1038/ng.3195〉. 〈pasteur-01153552〉

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