R. I. Aminov, Biotic acts of antibiotics, Frontiers in Microbiology, vol.4, 2013.
DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00241

G. W. Amsden, Anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides--an underappreciated benefit in the treatment of community-acquired respiratory tract infections and chronic inflammatory pulmonary conditions?, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.1, pp.10-21, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkh519

R. Anderson, H. C. Steel, R. Cockeran, A. Von-gottberg, L. De-gouveia et al., Comparison of the effects of macrolides, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, doxycycline, tobramycin and fluoroquinolones, on the production of pneumolysin by Streptococcus pneumoniae in vitro, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.60, issue.5, pp.1155-1158, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkm338

U. Baumann, M. King, E. M. App, S. Tai, A. König et al., Long-Term Azithromycin Therapy in Cystic Fibrosis Patients: A Study on Drug Levels and Sputum Properties, Canadian Respiratory Journal, vol.11, issue.2, pp.151-155, 2004.
DOI : 10.1155/2004/747841

J. L. Blumer, Evolution of a new drug formulation: the rationale for high-dose, short-course therapy with azithromycin, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.26, issue.05, pp.143-147, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S0924-8579(05)80320-6

J. M. Buyck, P. Plésiat, H. Traore, F. Vanderbist, P. M. Tulkens et al., Increased Susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Macrolides and Ketolides in Eukaryotic Cell Culture Media and Biological Fluids Due to Decreased Expression of oprM and Increased Outer-Membrane Permeability, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.55, issue.4, pp.534-542, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/cid/cis473

L. Cegelski, G. R. Marshall, G. R. Eldridge, and S. J. Hultgren, The biology and future prospects of antivirulence therapies, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.92, issue.1, pp.17-27, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nrmicro1818

A. Clement, A. Tamalet, E. Leroux, S. Ravilly, B. Fauroux et al., Long term effects of azithromycin in patients with cystic fibrosis: a double blind, placebo controlled trial, Thorax, vol.61, issue.10, pp.895-902, 2005.
DOI : 10.1136/thx.2005.057950

K. A. Coggan, W. , and M. C. , Global regulatory pathways and cross-talk control Pseudomonas aeruginosa environmental lifestyle and virulence phenotype, Curr. Issues Mol. Biol, vol.14, pp.47-70, 2012.

J. A. Driscoll, S. L. Brody, and M. H. Kollef, The Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infections, Drugs, vol.111, issue.3, pp.351-368, 2007.
DOI : 10.2165/00003495-200767030-00003

A. Equi, I. M. Balfour-lynn, A. Bush, and M. Rosenthal, Long term azithromycin in children with cystic fibrosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled crossover trial, The Lancet, vol.360, issue.9338, pp.978-984, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11081-6

S. Favre-bonté, T. Köhler, and C. Van-delden, Biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: role of the C4-HSL cell-to-cell signal and inhibition by azithromycin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.52, issue.4, pp.598-604, 2003.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkg397

J. Fernebro, Fighting bacterial infections???Future treatment options, Drug Resistance Updates, vol.14, issue.2, pp.125-139, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.drup.2011.02.001

I. R. Ferrer, K. Araki, and M. L. Ford, Paradoxical Aspects of Rapamycin Immunobiology in Transplantation, American Journal of Transplantation, vol.460, issue.4, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03473.x

J. E. Fleet, K. Guha, S. Piper, W. Banya, D. Bilton et al., A retrospective analysis of the impact of azithromycin maintenance therapy on adults attending a UK cystic fibrosis clinic, Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, vol.12, issue.1, pp.49-53, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcf.2012.05.010

G. Foulds, R. M. Shepard, J. , and R. B. , The pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in human serum and tissues, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.25, issue.suppl A, pp.73-82, 1990.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/25.suppl_A.73

E. J. Giamarellos-bourboulis, Immunomodulatory therapies for sepsis: unexpected effects with macrolides, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.32, pp.39-43, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2008.06.004

R. J. Gillis and B. H. Iglewski, Azithromycin Retards Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation, Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol.42, issue.12, pp.5842-5845, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/JCM.42.12.5842-5845.2004

A. E. Girard, D. Girard, A. R. English, T. D. Gootz, C. R. Cimochowski et al., Pharmacokinetic and in vivo studies with azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new macrolide with an extended half-life and excellent tissue distribution., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.31, issue.12, pp.1948-1954, 1948.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.31.12.1948

J. Gödeke, C. Pustelny, and S. Häussler, Recycling of Peptidyl-tRNAs by Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase Counteracts Azithromycin-Mediated Effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.57, issue.4, pp.1617-1624, 2013.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.02582-12

L. A. Hicks, T. H. Taylor, and R. J. Hunkler, U.S. Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing, 2010, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.368, issue.15, pp.1461-1462, 2010.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMc1212055

S. Hodge, G. Hodge, H. Jersmann, G. Matthews, J. Ahern et al., Azithromycin Improves Macrophage Phagocytic Function and Expression of Mannose Receptor in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.178, issue.2, pp.139-148, 1128.
DOI : 10.1164/rccm.200711-1666OC

T. Ichimiya, K. Takeoka, K. Hiramatsu, K. Hirai, T. Yamasaki et al., The Influence of Azithromycin on the Biofilm Formation of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> in vitro, Chemotherapy, vol.42, issue.3, pp.186-191, 1996.
DOI : 10.1159/000239440

Y. Imamura, Y. Higashiyama, K. Tomono, K. Izumikawa, K. Yanagihara et al., Azithromycin Exhibits Bactericidal Effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa through Interaction with the Outer Membrane, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.49, issue.4, pp.1377-1380, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.49.4.1377-1380.2005

F. Imperi, F. Massai, M. Facchini, E. Frangipani, D. Visaggio et al., Repurposing the antimycotic drug flucytosine for suppression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.110, issue.18, pp.7458-7463, 2013.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1222706110

I. H. Itkin and M. L. Menzel, The use of macrolide antibiotic substances in the treatment of asthma, Journal of Allergy, vol.45, issue.3, pp.146-162, 1970.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-8707(70)90124-3

A. Jaffé, J. Francis, M. Rosenthal, and A. Bush, Long-term azithromycin may improve lung function in children with cystic fibrosis, The Lancet, vol.351, issue.9100, pp.140-673678360, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)78360-4

T. Kai, K. Tateda, S. Kimura, Y. Ishii, H. Ito et al., A low concentration of azithromycin inhibits the mRNA expression of N-acyl homoserine lactone synthesis enzymes, upstream of lasI or rhlI, in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol.22, issue.6, pp.483-486, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pupt.2009.04.004

S. Kanoh, R. , and B. K. , Mechanisms of Action and Clinical Application of Macrolides as Immunomodulatory Medications, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.23, issue.3, pp.590-615, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.00078-09

E. Kita, M. Sawaki, D. Oku, A. Hamuro, K. Mikasa et al., by erythromycin, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.27, issue.3, pp.273-284, 1991.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/27.3.273

T. Kohler, J. L. Dumas, and C. Van-delden, Ribosome Protection Prevents Azithromycin-Mediated Quorum-Sensing Modulation and Stationary-Phase Killing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.51, issue.12, pp.4243-4248, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.00613-07

G. L. Law, J. Tisoncik-go, M. J. Korth, and M. G. Katze, Drug repurposing: a better approach for infectious disease drug discovery?, Current Opinion in Immunology, vol.25, issue.5, pp.588-592, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.coi.2013.08.004

R. Legssyer, F. Huaux, J. Lebacq, M. Delos, E. Marbaix et al., Azithromycin reduces spontaneous and induced inflammation in ??F508 cystic fibrosis mice, Respiratory Research, vol.174, issue.1, pp.134-144, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/174.5.994

L. Lutz, D. C. Pereira, R. M. Paiva, A. P. Zavascki, and A. L. Barth, Macrolides decrease the minimal inhibitory concentration of anti-pseudomonal agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa from cystic fibrosis patients in biofilm, BMC Microbiology, vol.12, issue.1, pp.196-206, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dki338

V. C. Mcalister, K. Mahalati, K. M. Peltekian, A. Fraser, and A. S. Macdonald, A Clinical Pharmacokinetic Study of Tacrolimus and Sirolimus Combination Immunosuppression Comparing Simultaneous to Separated Administration, Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol.24, issue.3, pp.346-350, 2002.
DOI : 10.1097/00007691-200206000-00004

S. Miyairi, K. Tateda, E. T. Fuse, C. Ueda, H. Saito et al., Immunization with 3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone-protein conjugate protects mice from lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection, Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol.55, issue.10, pp.1381-1387, 2006.
DOI : 10.1099/jmm.0.46658-0

G. Molinari, C. A. Guzman, A. Pesce, and G. C. Schito, virulence factors by subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin and other macrolide antibiotics, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.31, issue.5, pp.681-688, 1993.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/31.5.681

G. Molinari, P. Paglia, and G. C. Schito, Inhibition of motility ofPseudomonas aeruginosa andProteus mirabilis by subinhibitory concentrations of azithromycin, European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, vol.12, issue.Supplement 3, pp.469-471, 1007.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01961867

Y. Morita, N. Kimura, T. Mima, T. Mizushima, and T. Tsuchiya, Roles of MexXY- and MexAB-multidrug efflux pumps in intrinsic multidrug resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1., The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, vol.47, issue.1, pp.27-32, 2001.
DOI : 10.2323/jgam.47.27

K. Nagino and H. Kobayashi, Influence of macrolides on mucoid alginate biosynthetic enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.3, issue.4, pp.432-439, 1997.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.1997.tb00279.x

Y. Nalca, L. Jänsch, F. Bredenbruch, R. Geffers, J. Buer et al., Quorum-Sensing Antagonistic Activities of Azithromycin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1: a Global Approach, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.50, issue.5, pp.1680-1688, 2006.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.50.5.1680-1688.2006

D. Nguyen, M. J. Emond, N. Mayer-hamblett, L. Saiman, B. C. Marshall et al., Clinical response to azithromycin in cystic fibrosis correlates with in vitro effects onPseudomonas aeruginosa phenotypes, Pediatric Pulmonology, vol.36, issue.6, pp.533-541, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/ppul.20620

D. P. Nicolau, M. A. Banevicius, M. N. Marangos, M. E. Klepser, R. Quintiliani et al., Influence of adjunct azithromycin on the mortality of experimental Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.8, issue.4, pp.239-241, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0924-8579(97)00017-4

D. P. Nicolau, M. A. Banevicius, C. H. Nightingale, and R. Quintiliani, Beneficial effect of adjunctive azithromycin in treatment of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in the murine model, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.43, pp.3033-3035, 1999.

S. Pal, A journey across the sequential development of macrolides and ketolides related to erythromycin, Tetrahedron, vol.62, issue.14, pp.3171-3200, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tet.2005.11.064

I. Pérez-martínez and D. Haas, Azithromycin Inhibits Expression of the GacA-Dependent Small RNAs RsmY and RsmZ in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.55, issue.7, pp.3399-3405, 2011.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01801-10

J. Poehlsgaard, S. Douthwaite, D. A. Rasko, and V. Sperandio, The bacterial ribosome as a target for antibiotics Anti-virulence strategies to combat bacteria-mediated disease, Nat. Rev. Microbiol. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov, vol.3, issue.9, pp.870-881, 2005.

F. Ratjen, L. Saiman, N. Mayer-hamblett, L. C. Lands, M. Kloster et al., Effect of Azithromycin on Systemic Markers of Inflammation in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Uninfected With Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Chest, vol.142, issue.5, pp.1259-1266, 1378.
DOI : 10.1378/chest.12-0628

J. Retsema and W. Fu, Macrolides: structures and microbial targets, International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol.18, issue.01, pp.3-10, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0924-8579(01)00401-0

J. Retsema, A. Girard, W. Schelkly, M. Manousos, M. Anderson et al., Spectrum and mode of action of azithromycin (CP-62,993), a new 15-membered-ring macrolide with improved potency against gramnegative organisms, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.31, 1939.

L. Saiman, M. Anstead, N. Mayer-hamblett, L. C. Lands, M. Kloster et al., Effect of Azithromycin on Pulmonary Function in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Uninfected With <emph type="ital">Pseudomonas aeruginosa</emph><subtitle>A Randomized Controlled Trial</subtitle>, JAMA, vol.303, issue.17, pp.1707-1715, 2010.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2010.563

L. Saiman, B. C. Marshall, N. Mayer-hamblett, J. L. Burns, A. L. Quittner et al., Azithromycin in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis Chronically Infected With Pseudomonas aeruginosa, JAMA, vol.290, issue.13, pp.1749-1756, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.290.13.1749

R. J. Salmond and R. Zamoyska, The influence of mTOR on T helper cell differentiation and dendritic cell function, European Journal of Immunology, vol.13, issue.8, pp.2137-2141, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.201141523

M. J. Schultz, Macrolide activities beyond their antimicrobial effects: macrolides in diffuse panbronchiolitis and cystic fibrosis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.54, issue.1, pp.21-28, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/dkh309

M. E. Skindersoe, M. Alhede, R. Phipps, L. Yang, P. O. Jensen et al., Effects of Antibiotics on Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.52, issue.10, pp.3648-3663, 1128.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.01230-07

K. W. Southern, P. M. Barker, A. Solis-moya, P. , and L. , Macrolide antibiotics for cystic fibrosis, Cochrane Database Syst. Rev, 2004.

A. Spreer, H. Kerstan, T. Böttcher, J. Gerber, A. Siemer et al., Reduced Release of Pneumolysin by Streptococcus pneumoniae In Vitro and In Vivo after Treatment with Nonbacteriolytic Antibiotics in Comparison to Ceftriaxone, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.47, issue.8, pp.2649-2654, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.47.8.2649-2654.2003

H. C. Steel, A. J. Theron, R. Cockeran, R. Anderson, and C. Feldman, Pathogen- and Host-Directed Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Macrolide Antibiotics, Mediators of Inflammation, vol.5, issue.4, pp.5842-5862, 2012.
DOI : 10.4065/mcp.2010.0392

M. Sugimura, H. Maseda, H. Hanaki, and T. Nakae, Macrolide Antibiotic-Mediated Downregulation of MexAB-OprM Efflux Pump Expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.52, issue.11, pp.4141-4144, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.00511-08

K. Tateda, R. Comte, J. C. Pechere, T. Kohler, K. Yamaguchi et al., Azithromycin Inhibits Quorum Sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.45, issue.6, 1930.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.45.6.1930-1933.2001

K. Tateda, Y. Hirakata, N. Furuya, A. Ohno, Y. et al., Effects of sub-MICs of erythromycin and other macrolide antibiotics on serum sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol.37, issue.4, pp.675-680, 1993.
DOI : 10.1128/AAC.37.4.675

K. Tateda, Y. Ishii, Y. Hirakata, T. Matsumoto, A. Ohno et al., grown in the presence of sub-MICs of macrolide antibiotics and their relation to enhanced serum sensitivity, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol.34, issue.6, pp.931-942, 1994.
DOI : 10.1093/jac/34.6.931

K. Tateda, Y. Ishii, T. Matsumoto, N. Furuya, M. Nagashima et al., Direct evidence for antipseudomonal activity of macrolides: exposure-dependent bactericidal activity and inhibition of protein synthesis by erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, vol.40, pp.2271-2275, 1996.

W. C. Tsai, M. B. Hershenson, Y. Zhou, and U. Sajjan, Azithromycin increases survival and reduces lung inflammation in cystic fibrosis mice, Inflammation Research, vol.178, issue.8, pp.491-501, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00011-009-0015-9

C. Van-delden, T. Köhler, F. Brunner-ferber, B. François, J. Carlet et al., Azithromycin to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia by inhibition of quorum sensing: a randomized controlled trial, Intensive Care Medicine, vol.55, issue.Suppl 1, pp.1118-1125, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00134-012-2559-3

M. J. Wargo, M. J. Gross, S. Rajamani, J. L. Allard, L. K. Lundblad et al., Infection, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.184, issue.3, pp.345-354, 2011.
DOI : 10.1164/rccm.201103-0374OC