S. Crotty, ), Annual Review of Immunology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.621-663, 2011.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-031210-101400

G. D. Victora and M. C. Nussenzweig, Germinal Centers, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.30, issue.1, pp.429-457, 2012.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-020711-075032

S. Crotty, T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation, Function, and Roles in Disease, Immunity, vol.41, issue.4, pp.529-542, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2014.10.004

R. J. Johnston, Y. S. Choi, J. A. Diamond, J. A. Yang, and S. Crotty, cell differentiation, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.18, issue.2, pp.243-250, 2012.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-030409-101212

A. Ballesteros-tato, B. León, B. A. Graf, A. Moquin, P. S. Adams et al., Interleukin-2 Inhibits Germinal Center Formation by Limiting T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation, Immunity, vol.36, issue.5, pp.847-856, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2012.02.012

R. I. Nurieva, A. Podd, Y. Chen, A. M. Alekseev, M. Yu et al., STAT5 Protein Negatively Regulates T Follicular Helper (Tfh) Cell Generation and Function, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.287, issue.14, pp.11234-11239, 2012.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M111.324046

I. Group, D. Silcaat-scientific-committee, Y. Abrams, M. H. Levy, A. Losso et al., Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection, N. Engl. J. Med, vol.361, pp.1548-1559, 2009.

I. Sereti, H. Imamichi, V. Natarajan, T. Imamichi, M. S. Ramchandani et al., In vivo expansion of CD4+CD45RO-CD25+ T cells expressing foxP3 in IL-2-treated HIV-infected patients, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.115, issue.7, pp.1839-1847, 2005.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI24307DS1

A. Biancotto, J. C. Grivel, S. J. Iglehart, C. Vanpouille, A. Lisco et al., Abnormal activation and cytokine spectra in lymph nodes of people chronically infected with HIV-1, Blood, vol.109, issue.10, pp.4272-4279, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2006-11-055764

C. L. Shive, J. C. Mudd, N. T. Funderburg, S. F. Sieg, B. Kyi et al., Inflammatory Cytokines Drive CD4+ T-Cell Cycling and Impaired Responsiveness to Interleukin 7: Implications for Immune Failure in HIV Disease, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.210, issue.4, pp.619-629, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/jiu125

Y. Fukazawa, R. Lum, A. A. Okoye, H. Park, K. Matsuda et al., B cell follicle sanctuary permits persistent productive simian immunodeficiency virus infection in elite controllers, Nature Medicine, vol.9, issue.2, pp.132-139, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/nm.3781

R. A. Cubas, J. C. Mudd, A. L. Savoye, M. Perreau, J. Van-grevenynghe et al., Inadequate T follicular cell help impairs B cell immunity during HIV infection, Nature Medicine, vol.110, issue.4, pp.494-499, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/nm.3109

R. Morita, N. Schmitt, S. E. Bentebibel, R. Ranganathan, L. Bourdery et al., Human Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells Are Counterparts of T Follicular Cells and Contain Specific Subsets that Differentially Support Antibody Secretion, Immunity, vol.34, issue.1, pp.108-121, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.12.012

M. Locci, C. Havenar-daughton, E. Landais, J. Wu, M. A. Kroenke et al., Human Circulating PD-1+CXCR3???CXCR5+ Memory Tfh Cells Are Highly Functional and Correlate with Broadly Neutralizing HIV Antibody Responses, International AIDS Vaccine Initiative Protocol C Principal Investigators. 2013. Human circulating PD-1+CXCR3-CXCR5+ memory Tfh cells are highly functional and correlate with broadly neutralizing HIV antibody responses, pp.758-769
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2013.08.031

K. L. Boswell, R. Paris, E. Boritz, D. Ambrozak, T. Yamamoto et al., Loss of Circulating CD4 T Cells with B Cell Helper Function during Chronic HIV Infection, PLoS Pathogens, vol.498, issue.1, p.1003853, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003853.s005

C. V. Fletcher, K. Staskus, S. W. Wietgrefe, M. Rothenberger, C. Reilly et al., Persistent HIV-1 replication is associated with lower antiretroviral drug concentrations in lymphatic tissues, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp.2307-2312, 2014.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.1318249111

M. L. Goulet, D. Olagnier, Z. Xu, S. Paz, S. M. Belgnaoui et al., Systems Analysis of a RIG-I Agonist Inducing Broad Spectrum Inhibition of Virus Infectivity, PLoS Pathogens, vol.57, issue.4, p.1003298, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003298.s005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01131046

L. Kardava, S. Moir, N. Shah, W. Wang, R. Wilson et al., Abnormal B cell memory subsets dominate HIV-specific responses in infected individuals, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.124, issue.7, pp.3252-3262, 2014.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI74351DS1

N. Schmitt, S. E. Bentebibel, and H. Ueno, Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood, Trends in Immunology, vol.35, issue.9, pp.436-442, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2014.06.002

T. R. Malek, The Biology of Interleukin-2, Annual Review of Immunology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.453-479, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.immunol.26.021607.090357

O. Boyman and J. Sprent, The role of interleukin-2 during homeostasis and activation of the immune system, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.108, pp.180-190, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nri3156

J. Chen and X. Liu, The role of interferon ?? in regulation of CD4+ T-cells and its clinical implications, Cellular Immunology, vol.254, issue.2, pp.85-90, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cellimm.2008.09.001

K. M. Murphy and S. L. Reiner, Decision making in the immune system: The lineage decisions of helper T cells, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.17, issue.12, pp.933-944, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/nri954

R. J. Johnston, A. C. Poholek, D. Ditoro, I. Yusuf, D. Eto et al., Bcl6 and Blimp-1 Are Reciprocal and Antagonistic Regulators of T Follicular Helper Cell Differentiation, Science, vol.325, issue.5943, pp.1006-1010, 2009.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1175870

B. M. Bussmann, S. Reiche, B. Bieniek, I. Krznaric, F. Ackermann et al., Loss of HIV-specific memory B-cells as a potential mechanism for the dysfunction of the humoral immune response against HIV, Virology, vol.397, issue.1, pp.7-13, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virol.2009.11.003

S. Moir, C. M. Buckner, J. Ho, W. Wang, J. Chen et al., B cells in early and chronic HIV infection: evidence for preservation of immune function associated with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, Blood, vol.116, issue.25, pp.5571-5579, 2010.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2010-05-285528

S. Moir and A. S. Fauci, B-cell exhaustion in HIV infection, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol.9, issue.5, pp.472-477, 2014.
DOI : 10.1097/COH.0000000000000092

J. Pène, J. F. Gauchat, S. Lécart, E. Drouet, P. Guglielmi et al., Cutting Edge: IL-21 Is a Switch Factor for the Production of IgG1 and IgG3 by Human B Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.172, issue.9, pp.5154-5157, 2004.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.172.9.5154

S. Crotty, R. J. Johnston, and S. P. Schoenberger, Effectors and memories: Bcl-6 and Blimp-1 in T and B lymphocyte differentiation, Nature Immunology, vol.181, issue.2, pp.114-120, 2010.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.20080526

Y. S. Choi, R. Kageyama, D. Eto, T. C. Escobar, R. J. Johnston et al., ICOS Receptor Instructs T Follicular Helper Cell versus Effector Cell Differentiation via Induction of the Transcriptional Repressor Bcl6, Immunity, vol.34, issue.6, pp.932-946, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.03.023

M. Pepper, A. J. Pagán, B. Z. Igyártó, J. J. Taylor, and M. K. Jenkins, Opposing Signals from the Bcl6 Transcription Factor and the Interleukin-2 Receptor Generate T Helper 1 Central and Effector Memory Cells, Immunity, vol.35, issue.4, pp.583-595, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.09.009

R. Kenefeck, C. J. Wang, T. Kapadi, L. Wardzinski, K. Attridge et al., Follicular helper T cell signature in type 1 diabetes, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.125, issue.1, pp.292-303, 2015.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI76238DS1

L. Sticchi, B. Bruzzone, P. Caligiuri, E. Rappazzo, M. Lo-casto et al., Seroprevalence and vaccination coverage of vaccine-preventable diseases in perinatally HIV-1-infected patients, Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, vol.81, issue.1, pp.263-269, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(97)00001-7

K. Titanji, A. De-milito, A. Cagigi, R. Thorstensson, S. Gr?-utzmeier et al., Loss of memory B cells impairs maintenance of long-term serologic memory during HIV-1 infection, Blood, vol.108, issue.5, pp.1580-1587, 2006.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2005-11-013383

D. Milito, A. , A. Nilsson, K. Titanji, R. Thorstensson et al., Mechanisms of hypergammaglobulinemia and impaired antigen-specific humoral immunity in HIV-1 infection, Blood, vol.103, issue.6, pp.2180-2186, 2004.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2003-07-2375

S. Pallikkuth, A. Parmigiani, S. Y. Silva, V. K. George, M. Fischl et al., Impaired peripheral blood T-follicular helper cell function in HIV-infected nonresponders to the 2009 H1N1/09 vaccine, Blood, vol.120, issue.5, pp.985-993, 2012.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2011-12-396648

A. A. Lighvani, D. M. Frucht, D. Jankovic, H. Yamane, J. Aliberti et al., T-bet is rapidly induced by interferon-gamma in lymphoid and myeloid cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, pp.15137-15142, 2001.

M. Perreau, A. L. Savoye, E. De-crignis, J. M. Corpataux, R. Cubas et al., Follicular helper T cells serve as the major CD4 T cell compartment for HIV-1 infection, replication, and production, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.9, issue.1, pp.143-156, 2013.
DOI : 10.1126/science.278.5341.1291

N. Chomont, M. El-far, P. Ancuta, L. Trautmann, F. A. Procopio et al., HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation, Nature Medicine, vol.45, issue.8, pp.893-900, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nm.1972

D. Finzi, M. Hermankova, T. Pierson, L. M. Carruth, C. Buck et al., Identification of a Reservoir for HIV-1 in Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Science, vol.278, issue.5341, pp.1295-1300, 1997.
DOI : 10.1126/science.278.5341.1295

E. Cretney, A. Kallies, and S. L. Nutt, Differentiation and function of Foxp3+ effector regulatory T cells, Trends in Immunology, vol.34, issue.2, pp.74-80, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.it.2012.11.002