D. Finzi, Identification of a Reservoir for HIV-1 in Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Science, vol.278, issue.5341, pp.1295-1300, 1997.
DOI : 10.1126/science.278.5341.1295

N. Chomont, HIV reservoir size and persistence are driven by T cell survival and homeostatic proliferation, Nature Medicine, vol.45, issue.8, pp.893-900, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nm.1972

S. G. Deeks, HIV: Shock and kill, Nature, vol.487, issue.7408, pp.439-440, 2012.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834cdaba

M. El-far, T-cell exhaustion in HIV infection, Current HIV/AIDS Reports, vol.108, issue.1, pp.13-19, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s11904-008-0003-7

J. A. Aberg, Aging, inflammation, and HIV infection, Top Antivir Med, vol.20, pp.101-105, 2012.

S. P. Buchbinder, Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial, The Lancet, vol.372, issue.9653, pp.1881-1893, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61591-3

S. Rerks-ngarm, Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to Prevent HIV-1 Infection in Thailand, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.361, issue.23, pp.2209-2220, 2009.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa0908492

P. L. Smith, H. Tanner, and A. Dalgleish, Developments in HIV-1 immunotherapy and therapeutic vaccination, F1000Prime Reports, vol.6, p.43, 2014.
DOI : 10.12703/P6-43

M. El-far, CD160 isoforms and regulation of CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses, Journal of Translational Medicine, vol.43, issue.1, p.217, 2014.
DOI : 10.1186/s12967-014-0217-y

S. Grabar, Prevalence and comparative characteristics of long-term nonprogressors and HIV controller patients in the French Hospital Database on HIV, AIDS, vol.23, issue.9, pp.1163-1169, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e32832b44c8

J. F. Okulicz, Clinical Outcomes of Elite Controllers, Viremic Controllers, and Long???Term Nonprogressors in the US Department of Defense HIV Natural History Study, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.200, issue.11, pp.1714-1723, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/646609

S. A. Migueles and M. Connors, Long-term Nonprogressive Disease Among Untreated HIV-Infected Individuals, JAMA, vol.304, issue.2, pp.194-201, 2010.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2010.925

P. A. Mudd, Vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells control AIDS virus replication, Nature, vol.4, issue.7422, pp.129-133, 2012.
DOI : 10.1038/nature11443

A. O. Adegoke and M. D. Grant, Enhancing Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses with Heteroclitic Peptides, Frontiers in Immunology, vol.83, issue.9, p.377, 2015.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02017-08

J. Fellay, A Whole-Genome Association Study of Major Determinants for Host Control of HIV-1, Science, vol.317, issue.5840, pp.944-947, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1143767

S. A. Migueles, HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV-infected long term nonprogressors, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.97, issue.6, pp.2709-2714, 2000.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.050567397

S. G. Deeks and B. Walker, Human Immunodeficiency Virus Controllers: Mechanisms of Durable Virus Control in the Absence of Antiretroviral Therapy, Immunity, vol.27, issue.3, pp.406-416, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2007.08.010

J. R. Almeida, T cells is reflected by their avidity, polyfunctionality, and clonal turnover, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.93, issue.10, pp.2473-2485, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-1759(02)00195-3

A. Saez-cirion, HIV controllers exhibit potent CD8 T cell capacity to suppress HIV infection ex vivo and peculiar cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation phenotype, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.16, pp.6776-6781, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0611244104

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00142658

B. Emu, HLA Class I-Restricted T-Cell Responses May Contribute to the Control of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection, but Such Responses Are Not Always Necessary for Long-Term Virus Control, Journal of Virology, vol.82, issue.11, pp.5398-5407, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.02176-07

A. Andrade, T Cell Depletion in an Untreated HIV Type 1???Infected Human Leukocyte Antigen???B*5801???Positive Patient with an Undetectable Viral Load, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.46, issue.8, pp.78-82, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/529387

A. R. Sedaghat, T Cell Dynamics and the Response to HAART in a Cohort of HIV???1???Infected Elite Suppressors, Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol.49, issue.11, pp.1763-1766, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/648081

M. F. Nold, Endogenous IL-32 Controls Cytokine and HIV-1 Production, The Journal of Immunology, vol.181, issue.1, pp.557-565, 2008.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.181.1.557

S. T. Rasool, Increased level of IL-32 during human immunodeficiency virus infection suppresses HIV replication, Immunology Letters, vol.117, issue.2, pp.161-167, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imlet.2008.01.007

B. Heinhuis, M. G. Netea, W. B. Van-den-berg, C. A. Dinarello, and L. A. Joosten, Interleukin-32: A predominantly intracellular proinflammatory mediator that controls cell activation and cell death, Cytokine, vol.60, issue.2, pp.321-327, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cyto.2012.07.010

N. G. Sandler, Plasma Levels of Soluble CD14 Independently Predict Mortality in HIV Infection, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.203, issue.6, pp.780-790, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/jiq118

J. P. Bastard, Circulating interleukin-6 levels correlate with residual HIV viraemia and markers of immune dysfunction in treatment-controlled HIV-infected patients, Antiviral Therapy, vol.17, issue.5, pp.915-919, 2012.
DOI : 10.3851/IMP2093

J. B. Margolick, Impact of Inversion of the CD4/CD8 Ratio on the Natural History of HIV-1 Infection, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.42, issue.5, pp.620-626, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.qai.0000223028.55080.9d

J. Tang, CD4:CD8 lymphocyte ratio as a quantitative measure of immunologic health in HIV-1 infection: findings from an African cohort with prospective data, Frontiers in Microbiology, vol.6, p.670, 2015.
DOI : 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00670

W. Lu, CD4:CD8 ratio as a frontier marker for clinical outcome, immune dysfunction and viral reservoir size in virologically suppressed HIV-positive patients, Journal of the International AIDS Society, vol.18, issue.1, p.20052, 2015.
DOI : 10.7448/IAS.18.1.20052

A. J. Smith, The Immunosuppressive Role of IL-32 in Lymphatic Tissue during HIV-1 Infection, The Journal of Immunology, vol.186, issue.11, pp.6576-6584, 2011.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1100277

M. G. Netea, IL-32 synergizes with nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) 1 and NOD2 ligands for IL-1?? and IL-6 production through a caspase 1-dependent mechanism, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.102, issue.45, pp.16309-16314, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0508237102

S. H. Kim, S. Y. Han, T. Azam, D. Y. Yoon, and C. A. Dinarello, Interleukin-32, Immunity, vol.22, issue.1, pp.131-142, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2004.12.003

P. Ancuta, P. Monteiro, and R. P. Sekaly, Th17 lineage commitment and HIV-1 pathogenesis, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol.5, issue.2, pp.158-165, 2010.
DOI : 10.1097/COH.0b013e3283364733

A. Gosselin, Peripheral Blood CCR4+CCR6+ and CXCR3+CCR6+ CD4+ T Cells Are Highly Permissive to HIV-1 Infection, The Journal of Immunology, vol.184, issue.3, pp.1604-1616, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0903058

H. Sun, ABSTRACT, Journal of Virology, vol.89, issue.22, pp.11284-93, 2015.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.01595-15

M. &. Carrington and S. J. O-'brien, 22902 | DOI: 10.1038/srep22902 37 The influence of HLA genotype on AIDS, Scientific RepoRts | Annu Rev Med, vol.6, issue.54, pp.535-551, 2003.

M. Carrington, HLA and HIV-1: Heterozygote Advantage and B*35-Cw*04 Disadvantage, Science, vol.283, issue.5408, pp.1748-1752, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.283.5408.1748

P. W. Hunt, T Cell Count in HIV???Seropositive Individuals with Undetectable Plasma HIV RNA Levels in the Absence of Therapy, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.197, issue.1, pp.126-133, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/524143

S. Krishnan, Evidence for Innate Immune System Activation in HIV Type 1-Infected Elite Controllers, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.209, issue.6, pp.931-939, 2014.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/jit581

C. A. Dahl, R. P. Schall, H. L. He, and J. S. Cairns, Identification of a novel gene expressed in activated natural killer cells and T cells, J Immunol, vol.148, pp.597-603, 1992.

M. G. Netea, Interleukin-32 induces the differentiation of monocytes into macrophage-like cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.9, pp.3515-3520, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0712381105

J. W. Kang, Interaction network mapping among IL-32 isoforms, Biochimie, vol.101, pp.248-251, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biochi.2014.01.013

J. D. Choi, Identification of the most active interleukin-32 isoform, Immunology, vol.37, issue.4, pp.535-542, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2008.02917.x

F. Calabrese, IL-32, a Novel Proinflammatory Cytokine in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.178, issue.9, pp.894-901, 2008.
DOI : 10.1164/rccm.200804-646OC

K. Monteleone, Interleukin-32 isoforms: expression, interaction with interferon-regulated genes and clinical significance in chronically HIV-1-infected patients, Medical Microbiology and Immunology, vol.284, issue.1, pp.207-216, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s00430-014-0329-2

D. Favre, Critical Loss of the Balance between Th17 and T Regulatory Cell Populations in Pathogenic SIV Infection, PLoS Pathogens, vol.14, issue.2, p.1000295, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000295.s010

D. Favre, Tryptophan Catabolism by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1 Alters the Balance of TH17 to Regulatory T Cells in HIV Disease, Science Translational Medicine, vol.2, issue.32, pp.32-36, 2010.
DOI : 10.1126/scitranslmed.3000632

M. Y. Jung, M. H. Son, S. H. Kim, D. Cho, and T. S. Kim, IL-32?? Induces the Maturation of Dendritic Cells with Th1- and Th17-Polarizing Ability through Enhanced IL-12 and IL-6 Production, The Journal of Immunology, vol.186, issue.12, pp.6848-6859, 2011.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1003996

S. Hanzelmann, R. Castelo, and J. Guinney, GSVA: gene set variation analysis for microarray and RNA-Seq data, BMC Bioinformatics, vol.14, issue.1, 2013.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2105-14-7

J. M. Brenchley, Differential Th17 CD4 T-cell depletion in pathogenic and nonpathogenic lentiviral infections, Blood, vol.112, issue.7, pp.2826-2835, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-05-159301

J. M. Brenchley and D. C. Douek, The mucosal barrier and immune activation in HIV pathogenesis, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol.3, issue.3, pp.356-361, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/COH.0b013e3282f9ae9c

J. M. Brenchley, D. A. Price, and D. C. Douek, HIV disease: fallout from a mucosal catastrophe?, Nature Immunology, vol.438, issue.3, pp.235-239, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/ni1316

J. M. Brenchley, Microbial translocation is a cause of systemic immune activation in chronic HIV infection, Nature Medicine, vol.174, issue.12, pp.1365-1371, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nm1511

W. Jiang, Plasma Levels of Bacterial DNA Correlate with Immune Activation and the Magnitude of Immune Restoration in Persons with Antiretroviral???Treated HIV Infection, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.199, issue.8, pp.1177-1185, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/597476

P. Ancuta, Microbial Translocation Is Associated with Increased Monocyte Activation and Dementia in AIDS Patients, PLoS ONE, vol.1, issue.6, p.2516, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0002516.t003

R. Landmann, Human monocyte CD14 is upregulated by lipopolysaccharide, Infect Immun, vol.64, pp.1762-1769, 1996.

B. J. Tallon, Time to Seroconversion in HIV-Exposed Subjects Carrying Protective versus Non Protective KIR3DS1/L1 and HLA-B Genotypes, PLoS ONE, vol.115, issue.10, p.110480, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0110480.s005

G. K. Smyth, limma: Linear Models for Microarray Data, Bioinformatics and Computational Biology Solutions using R and Bioconductor, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/0-387-29362-0_23

M. M. Bradford, A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.72, issue.1-2, pp.248-254, 1976.
DOI : 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

O. Doherty, U. Swiggard, W. J. Malim, and M. H. , Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Spinoculation Enhances Infection through Virus Binding, Journal of Virology, vol.74, issue.21, pp.10074-10080, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/JVI.74.21.10074-10080.2000

R. Ottawa-health, O. Institute, . Hospital, and C. On, 12 Downtown Infectious Diseases Clinic 14 Southern Alberta Clinic, 16 Maple Leaf Medical Clinic, pp.15-19

. Notre-dame and C. Qc, 21 Lawson Research Inc, St. Joseph's Health Care de recherche en infectiologie (CRI), Centre hospitalier de l, SunnyBrook Health Sciences Centre Queen's University, p.25