A. M. Avalos, F. Meyer-wentrup, and H. L. Ploegh, B-Cell Receptor Signaling in Lymphoid Malignancies and Autoimmunity, Adv. Immunol, vol.123, pp.1-49, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/B978-0-12-800266-7.00004-2

R. Bankoti, K. Gupta, A. Levchenko, and S. Stä-ger, Marginal Zone B Cells Regulate Antigen-Specific T Cell Responses during Infection, The Journal of Immunology, vol.188, issue.8, pp.3961-3971, 2012.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1102880

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00819065

S. R. Christensen, J. Shupe, K. Nickerson, M. Kashgarian, R. A. Flavell et al., Toll-like Receptor 7 and TLR9 Dictate Autoantibody Specificity and Have Opposing Inflammatory and Regulatory Roles in a Murine Model of Lupus, Immunity, vol.25, issue.3, pp.417-428, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2006.07.013

S. Crotty, ), Annual Review of Immunology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.621-663, 2011.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev-immunol-031210-101400

E. Deak, A. Jayakumar, K. W. Cho, K. Goldsmith-pestana, B. Dondji et al., Murine visceral leishmaniasis: IgM and polyclonal B-cell activation lead to disease exacerbation, European Journal of Immunology, vol.166, issue.5, pp.1355-1368, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200939455

A. L. Defranco, D. C. Rookhuizen, and B. Hou, Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling to germinal center antibody responses, Immunological Reviews, vol.29, issue.1, pp.64-72, 2012.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2012.01115.x

V. P. Doucett, W. Gerhard, K. Owler, D. Curry, L. Brown et al., Enumeration and characterization of virus-specific B cells by multicolor flow cytometry, Journal of Immunological Methods, vol.303, issue.1-2, pp.40-52, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jim.2005.05.014

J. F. Flandin, F. Chano, and A. Descoteaux, RNA interference reveals a role for TLR2 and TLR3 in the recognition ofLeishmania donovani promastigotes by interferon?????-primed macrophages, European Journal of Immunology, vol.164, issue.2, pp.411-420, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200535079

S. A. Freeman, V. Jaumouillé, K. Choi, B. E. Hsu, H. S. Wong et al., Toll-like receptor ligands sensitize B-cell receptor signalling by reducing actin-dependent spatial confinement of the receptor, Nature Communications, vol.6, p.6168, 2015.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M113.512954

B. Garulli, M. G. Stillitano, V. Barnaba, and M. R. Castrucci, Primary CD8+ T-Cell Response to Soluble Ovalbumin Is Improved by Chloroquine Treatment In Vivo, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol.15, issue.10, pp.1497-1504, 2008.
DOI : 10.1128/CVI.00166-08

A. M. Gomez, M. Ouellet, and M. J. Tremblay, HIV-1???Triggered Release of Type I IFN by Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Induces BAFF Production in Monocytes, The Journal of Immunology, vol.194, issue.5, pp.2300-2308, 2015.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.1402147

C. Gota and L. Calabrese, Induction of Clinical Autoimmune Disease by Therapeutic Interferon-??, Autoimmunity, vol.21, issue.2, pp.511-518, 2003.
DOI : 10.1159/000018447

Y. Goto, S. Omachi, C. Sanjoba, and Y. Matsumoto, Elevation of Serum B-Cell Activating Factor Levels During Visceral Leishmaniasis, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.91, issue.5, pp.912-914, 2014.
DOI : 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0260

S. Han, H. Zhuang, S. Shumyak, L. Yang, and W. H. Reeves, Mechanisms of Autoantibody Production in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Frontiers in Immunology, vol.6, p.228, 2015.
DOI : 10.3389/fimmu.2015.00228

A. K. Heer, A. Shamshiev, A. Donda, S. Uematsu, S. Akira et al., TLR Signaling Fine-Tunes Anti-Influenza B Cell Responses without Regulating Effector T Cell Responses, The Journal of Immunology, vol.178, issue.4, pp.2182-2191, 2007.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.178.4.2182

B. Hou, P. Saudan, G. Ott, M. L. Wheeler, M. Ji et al., Selective Utilization of Toll-like Receptor and MyD88 Signaling in B Cells for Enhancement of the Antiviral Germinal Center Response, Immunity, vol.34, issue.3, pp.375-384, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.01.011

L. Hunziker, M. Recher, A. J. Macpherson, A. Ciurea, S. Freigang et al., Hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibody induction mechanisms in viral infections, Nature Immunology, vol.4, issue.4, pp.343-349, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/ni911

L. B. Ivashkiv and L. T. Donlin, Regulation of type I interferon responses, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.7, issue.1, pp.36-49, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nri3581

S. P. Kasturi, I. Skountzou, R. A. Albrecht, D. Koutsonanos, T. Hua et al., Programming the magnitude and persistence of antibody responses with innate immunity, Nature, vol.64, issue.7335, pp.543-547, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nature09737

P. Kaye and P. Scott, Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host???pathogen interface, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.74, issue.8, pp.604-615, 2011.
DOI : 10.1038/nrmicro2608

D. Kirkland, A. Benson, J. Mirpuri, R. Pifer, B. Hou et al., B Cell-Intrinsic MyD88 Signaling Prevents the Lethal Dissemination of Commensal Bacteria during Colonic Damage, Immunity, vol.36, issue.2, pp.228-238, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.11.019

N. S. Kolhatkar, A. Brahmandam, C. D. Thouvenel, S. Becker-herman, H. M. Jacobs et al., Altered BCR and TLR signals promote enhanced positive selection of autoreactive transitional B cells in Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.162, issue.10, 2015.
DOI : 10.1038/nature11311

P. Kropf, M. A. Freudenberg, M. Modolell, H. P. Price, S. Herath et al., Toll-Like Receptor 4 Contributes to Efficient Control of Infection with the Protozoan Parasite Leishmania major, Infection and Immunity, vol.72, issue.4, 1920.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.72.4.1920-1928.2004

E. I. Lafferty, A. Flaczyk, I. Angers, R. Homer, E. Hennezel et al., An ENU-induced splicing mutation reveals a role for Unc93b1 in early immune cell activation following influenza A H1N1 infection, Genes and Immunity, vol.64, issue.5, pp.320-332, 2014.
DOI : 10.1038/nprot.2009.2

L. Bon, A. Schiavoni, G. Agostino, G. Gresser, I. Belardelli et al., Type I Interferons Potently Enhance Humoral Immunity and Can Promote Isotype Switching by Stimulating Dendritic Cells In Vivo, Immunity, vol.14, issue.4, pp.461-470, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1074-7613(01)00126-1

H. Li, Y. X. Fu, Q. Wu, Y. Zhou, D. K. Crossman et al., Interferon-induced mechanosensing defects impede apoptotic cell clearance in lupus, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.125, issue.7, pp.2877-2890, 2015.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI81059DS1

B. S. Liu, Y. Cao, T. W. Huizinga, D. A. Hafler, and R. E. Toes, TLR-mediated STAT3 and ERK activation controls IL-10 secretion by human B cells, European Journal of Immunology, vol.178, issue.7, pp.2121-2129, 2014.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.201344341

J. M. Lund, L. Alexopoulou, A. Sato, M. Karow, N. C. Adams et al., Recognition of single-stranded RNA viruses by Toll-like receptor 7, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, pp.5598-5603, 2004.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0400937101

A. L. Marzo, K. D. Klonowski, L. Bon, A. Borrow, P. Tough et al., Initial T cell frequency dictates memory CD8+ T cell lineage commitment, Nature Immunology, vol.166, issue.8, pp.793-799, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.279.5354.1223

U. M?-uller, U. Steinhoff, L. F. Reis, S. Hemmi, J. Pavlovic et al., Functional role of type I and type II interferons in antiviral defense, Science, vol.264, 1918.

P. Neves, V. Lampropoulou, E. Calderon-gomez, T. Roch, U. Stervbo et al., Signaling via the MyD88 Adaptor Protein in B Cells Suppresses Protective Immunity during Salmonella typhimurium Infection, Immunity, vol.33, issue.5, pp.777-790, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.10.016

K. Nothelfer, P. J. Sansonetti, and A. Phalipon, Pathogen manipulation of B cells: the best defence is a good offence, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.9, issue.3, pp.173-184, 2015.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.20141404

S. Nylé-n, R. Maurya, L. Eidsmo, K. D. Manandhar, S. Sundar et al., (Foxp3) regulatory T cells in human visceral leishmaniasis, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.139, issue.4, pp.805-817, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2002-10-3232

C. Pasare and R. Medzhitov, Control of B-cell responses by Toll-like receptors, Nature, vol.4, issue.7066, pp.364-368, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04267

A. Paun, R. Bankoti, T. Joshi, P. M. Pitha, and S. Stä-ger, Critical Role of IRF-5 in the Development of T helper 1 responses to Leishmania donovani infection, PLoS Pathogens, vol.165, issue.1, 2011.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001246.s003

V. Rodrigues, M. Laforge, L. Campillo-gimenez, C. Soundaramourty, A. Correia-de-oliveira et al., Abortive T Follicular Helper Development Is Associated with a Defective Humoral Response in Leishmania infantum-Infected Macaques, PLoS Pathogens, vol.25, issue.4, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004096.s013

C. Ronet, Y. Hauyon-la-torre, M. Revaz-breton, B. Mastelic, F. Tacchini-cottier et al., Regulatory B Cells Shape the Development of Th2 Immune Responses in BALB/c Mice Infected with Leishmania major Through IL-10 Production, The Journal of Immunology, vol.184, issue.2, pp.886-894, 2010.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0901114

U. Schleicher, J. Liese, I. Knippertz, C. Kurzmann, A. Hesse et al., NK cell activation in visceral leishmaniasis requires TLR9, myeloid DCs, and IL-12, but is independent of plasmacytoid DCs, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.94, issue.4, pp.893-906, 2007.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.183.4.1501

S. C. Smelt, C. R. Engwerda, M. Mccrossen, K. , and P. M. , Destruction of follicular dendritic cells during chronic visceral leishmaniasis, J. Immunol, vol.158, pp.3813-3821, 1997.

S. C. Smelt, S. E. Cotterell, C. R. Engwerda, K. , and P. M. , B Cell-Deficient Mice Are Highly Resistant to Leishmania donovani Infection, but Develop Neutrophil-Mediated Tissue Pathology, The Journal of Immunology, vol.164, issue.7, pp.3681-3688, 2000.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.164.7.3681

S. Stä-ger, J. Alexander, A. C. Kirby, M. Botto, N. V. Rooijen et al., Natural antibodies and complement are endogenous adjuvants for vaccine-induced CD8+ T-cell responses, 2003.

S. Stä-ger, A. Maroof, S. Zubairi, S. L. Sanos, M. Kopf et al., Distinct roles for IL-6 and IL-12p40 in mediating protection againstLeishmania donovani and the expansion of IL-10+ CD4+ T cells, European Journal of Immunology, vol.169, issue.7, pp.1764-1771, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200635937

L. L. Stunz, P. Lenert, D. Peckham, A. K. Yi, S. Haxhinasto et al., Inhibitory oligonucleotides specifically block effects of stimulatory CpG oligonucleotides in B cells, European Journal of Immunology, vol.32, issue.5, pp.1212-1222, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/1521-4141(200205)32:5<1212::AID-IMMU1212>3.0.CO;2-D

D. L. Thibault, K. L. Graham, L. Y. Lee, I. Balboni, P. J. Hertzog et al., Type I interferon receptor controls B-cell expression of nucleic acid-sensing Toll-like receptors and autoantibody production in a murine model of lupus, Arthritis Research & Therapy, vol.11, issue.4, p.112, 2009.
DOI : 10.1186/ar2771

K. Yanaba, J. D. Bouaziz, T. Matsushita, T. Tsubata, and T. F. Tedder, The Development and Function of Regulatory B Cells Expressing IL-10 (B10 Cells) Requires Antigen Receptor Diversity and TLR Signals, The Journal of Immunology, vol.182, issue.12, pp.7459-7472, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0900270