A. Hsing and A. Chokkalingam, Prostate cancer epidemiology, Frontiers in Bioscience, vol.11, issue.1, pp.1388-413, 2006.
DOI : 10.2741/1891

W. Haenszel and M. Kurihara, Studies of Japanese migrants. I. Mortality from cancer and other diseases among Japanese in the United States, J Natl Cancer Inst, vol.40, pp.43-68, 1968.

E. Ford, W. Giles, and A. Mokdad, Increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among u.s. Adults. Diabetes Care, pp.2444-2453, 2004.

E. Platz, E. Giovannucci, . B. Uk-;-w, . Saunders, and . Co, Prostate cancer In Cancer epidemiology and prevention, pp.1128-50, 2006.

E. Kassi, P. Pervanidou, G. Kaltsas, and G. Chrousos, Metabolic syndrome: definitions and controversies, BMC Medicine, vol.163, issue.Suppl 3, p.48, 2011.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.163.4.427

K. Alberti, R. Eckel, S. Grundy, P. Zimmet, J. Cleeman et al., Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome: A Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity, Circulation, vol.120, issue.16, pp.1640-1645, 2009.
DOI : 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.192644

A. Cameron, J. Shaw, and P. Zimmet, The metabolic syndrome: prevalence in worldwide populations, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, vol.33, issue.2, pp.351-75, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ecl.2004.03.005

R. Ervin, Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, Natl Health Stat Rep, vol.13, pp.1-7, 2003.

D. Nunzio, C. Aronson, W. Freedland, S. Giovannucci, E. Parsons et al., The Correlation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Prostatic Diseases, European Urology, vol.61, issue.3, pp.560-70, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.eururo.2011.11.013

I. Gorbachinsky, H. Akpinar, and D. Assimos, Metabolic syndrome and urologic diseases, Rev Urol, vol.12, pp.157-80, 2010.

D. Chu and S. Freedland, Metabolic risk factors in prostate cancer, Cancer, vol.12, issue.10, pp.2020-2023, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.25749

M. Grossmann and G. Wittert, Androgens, diabetes and prostate cancer, Endocrine Related Cancer, vol.19, issue.5, pp.47-62, 2012.
DOI : 10.1530/ERC-12-0067

A. Hsing, L. Sakoda, C. Jr, and S. , Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and prostate cancer, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.86, pp.843-57, 2007.

A. Discacciati, N. Orsini, and A. Wolk, Body mass index and incidence of localized and advanced prostate cancer--a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies, Annals of Oncology, vol.23, issue.7, pp.1665-71, 2012.
DOI : 10.1093/annonc/mdr603

R. Macinnis and D. English, Body size and composition and prostate cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis, Cancer Causes & Control, vol.8, issue.8, pp.989-1003, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s10552-006-0049-z

E. Allott, E. Masko, and S. Freedland, Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Weighing the Evidence, European Urology, vol.63, issue.5, pp.800-809, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.eururo.2012.11.013

S. Freedland and E. Platz, Obesity and Prostate Cancer: Making Sense out of Apparently Conflicting Data, Epidemiologic Reviews, vol.29, issue.1, pp.88-97, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/epirev/mxm006

K. Shikata, T. Ninomiya, and Y. Kiyohara, Diabetes mellitus and cancer risk: Review of the epidemiological evidence, Cancer Science, vol.8, issue.1, pp.9-14, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/cas.12043

D. Bansal, A. Bhansali, G. Kapil, K. Undela, and P. Tiwari, Type 2 diabetes and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies, Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, vol.70, pp.151-159, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/pcan.2012.40

D. Nunzio, C. Tubaro, and A. , Prostate cancer: Diabetes and prostate cancer???an open debate, Nature Reviews Urology, vol.10, issue.1, pp.12-16, 2013.
DOI : 10.1634/theoncologist.2011-0462

K. Esposito, P. Chiodini, A. Capuano, G. Bellastella, M. Maiorino et al., Effect of metabolic syndrome and its components on prostate cancer risk: Meta-analysis, Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol.8, issue.Suppl1, pp.132-141, 2013.
DOI : 10.1007/BF03346748

Y. Xiang, H. Xiong, Z. Cui, S. Jiang, Q. Xia et al., The association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer, high-grade prostate cancer, advanced prostate cancer, prostate cancer-specific mortality and biochemical recurrence, Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, vol.32, issue.1, p.9, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diabres.2011.08.029

A. Blanc-lapierre, D. Weiss, and M. Parent, Use of oral anticoagulants and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based case???control study in Montreal, Canada, Cancer Causes & Control, vol.65, issue.9, pp.1159-66, 2014.
DOI : 10.1007/s10552-014-0417-z

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01134512

A. Spence, M. Rousseau, P. Karakiewicz, and M. Parent, Circumcision and prostate cancer: a population-based case?control study in Montréal, BJU Int, 2014.

J. Yu, J. Lavoué, and M. Parent, Sunlight exposure during leisure activities and risk of prostate cancer in Montr??al, Canada, 2005???2009, BMC Public Health, vol.67, issue.2, p.756, 2005.
DOI : 10.1210/jcem-67-2-373

M. Parent, M. Goldberg, D. Crouse, N. Ross, H. Chen et al., Traffic-related air pollution and prostate cancer risk: a case???control study in Montreal, Canada, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, vol.11, issue.2 Suppl, pp.511-519, 2013.
DOI : 10.1136/oemed-2012-101211

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01132023

R. Parikh, S. Joshi, and K. Pandia, Index of Central Obesity Is Better Than Waist Circumference in Defining Metabolic Syndrome, Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol.7, issue.6, pp.525-532, 2009.
DOI : 10.1089/met.2008.0102

J. Wright, C. Salinas, D. Lin, S. Kolb, J. Koopmeiners et al., Prostate Cancer Specific Mortality and Gleason 7 Disease Differences in Prostate Cancer Outcomes Between Cases With Gleason 4 + 3 and Gleason 3 + 4 Tumors in a Population Based Cohort, The Journal of Urology, vol.182, issue.6, pp.2702-2709, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.juro.2009.08.026

H. Choi, J. Park, B. Cho, K. Son, Y. Yoo et al., The illusion of prostate-specific antigen decline in patients with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance, BJU International, vol.21, issue.11, pp.1756-61, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2011.10225.x

L. Bañez, R. Hamilton, A. Partin, R. Vollmer, L. Sun et al., Obesity-Related Plasma Hemodilution and PSA Concentration Among Men With Prostate Cancer, JAMA, vol.298, issue.19, pp.2275-80, 2007.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.298.19.2275

D. Chu, D. Nunzio, C. Gerber, L. , T. et al., Predictive value of digital rectal examination for prostate cancer detection is modified by obesity, Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, vol.151, issue.4, pp.346-53, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.22443

N. Riediger and C. I. , Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Canadian adult population, Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol.183, issue.15, pp.1127-1161, 2011.
DOI : 10.1503/cmaj.110070

H. Lakka, D. Laaksonen, T. Lakka, L. Niskanen, E. Kumpusalo et al., The Metabolic Syndrome and Total and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Middle-aged Men, JAMA, vol.288, issue.21, pp.2709-2725, 2002.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.288.21.2709

Y. Lawrence, O. Morag, M. Benderly, V. Boyko, I. Novikov et al., Association between metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer risk, Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases, vol.35, pp.181-187, 2013.
DOI : 10.1038/pcan.2012.54

M. Van-hemelrijck, H. Garmo, L. Holmberg, G. Walldius, I. Jungner et al., Prostate cancer risk in the Swedish AMORIS study, Cancer, vol.39, issue.4 pt 1, pp.2086-95, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.25758

C. Häggström, T. Stocks, G. Nagel, J. Manjer, T. Bjørge et al., Prostate Cancer, Prostate Cancer Death, and Death from Other Causes, Among Men with Metabolic Aberrations, Epidemiology, vol.25, issue.6, pp.823-831, 2014.
DOI : 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000174

D. Bansal, K. Undela, D. Cruz, S. Schifano, and F. , Statin Use and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies, PLoS ONE, vol.7, issue.10, 2012.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0046691.s001

J. Beebe-dimmer, N. Nock, C. Neslund-dudas, A. Rundle, C. Bock et al., Racial Differences in Risk of Prostate Cancer Associated With Metabolic Syndrome, Urology, vol.74, issue.1, pp.185-90, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.urology.2009.03.013

L. Håheim, L. Wisløff, T. Holme, I. Nafstad, and P. , Metabolic Syndrome Predicts Prostate Cancer in a Cohort of Middle-aged Norwegian Men Followed for 27 Years, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.164, issue.8, pp.769-74, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwj284

B. Grundmark, H. Garmo, M. Loda, C. Busch, L. Holmberg et al., The Metabolic Syndrome and the Risk of Prostate Cancer under Competing Risks of Death from Other Causes, Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention, vol.19, issue.8, pp.2088-96, 2010.
DOI : 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-10-0112

C. Pelucchi, D. Serraino, E. Negri, M. Montella, C. Dellanoce et al., The Metabolic Syndrome and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Italy, Annals of Epidemiology, vol.21, issue.11, pp.835-876, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.07.007

J. Laukkanen, D. Laaksonen, L. Niskanen, E. Pukkala, A. Hakkarainen et al., Metabolic syndrome and the risk of prostate cancer in Finnish men: a population-based study, Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev Publ Am Assoc Cancer Res Cosponsored Am Soc Prev Oncol, vol.13, pp.1646-50, 2004.

L. Wallner, H. Morgenstern, M. Mcgree, D. Jacobson, S. Sauver et al., The effects of metabolic conditions on prostate cancer incidence over 15 years of follow-up: results from the Olmsted County Study, BJU International, vol.66, issue.6, pp.929-964, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09703.x

A. Tande, E. Platz, and A. Folsom, The Metabolic Syndrome Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.164, issue.11, pp.1094-102, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwj320

J. Beebe-dimmer, R. Dunn, A. Sarma, J. Montie, and K. Cooney, Features of the metabolic syndrome and prostate cancer in African-American men, Cancer, vol.107, issue.5, pp.875-81, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.22461

D. Yates and J. Anderson, Screening for Prostate Cancer In Prostate Cancer: A Comprehensive Perspective, pp.333-346, 2013.

C. Häggström, T. Stocks, D. Ulmert, T. Bjørge, H. Ulmer et al., Prospective study on metabolic factors and risk of prostate cancer, Cancer, vol.13, issue.24, pp.6199-206, 2012.
DOI : 10.1002/cncr.27677

D. Nunzio, C. Freedland, S. Miano, R. Trucchi, A. Cantiani et al., Metabolic syndrome is associated with high grade gleason score when prostate cancer is diagnosed on biopsy, The Prostate, vol.71, issue.10, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/pros.21364

J. Morote, J. Ropero, J. Planas, J. Bastarós, G. Delgado et al., Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of aggressive prostate cancer detection, BJU International, vol.105, issue.7, pp.1031-1037, 2013.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11406.x

B. Bhindi, J. Locke, S. Alibhai, G. Kulkarni, D. Margel et al., Dissecting the Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and Prostate Cancer Risk: Analysis of a Large Clinical Cohort, European Urology, vol.67, issue.1, 2014.
DOI : 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.01.040

K. Sourbeer, L. Howard, G. Andriole, D. Moreira, R. Castro-santamaria et al., Metabolic syndrome-like components and prostate cancer risk: Results from the REDUCE Study, BJU Int, 2014.

R. Martin, L. Vatten, D. Gunnell, P. Romundstad, and T. Nilsen, Components of the metabolic syndrome and risk of prostate cancer: the HUNT 2 cohort, Norway, Cancer Causes & Control, vol.89, issue.5, pp.1181-92, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s10552-009-9319-x

Y. Osaki, S. Taniguchi, A. Tahara, M. Okamoto, and T. Kishimoto, Metabolic syndrome and incidence of liver and breast cancers in Japan, Cancer Epidemiology, vol.36, issue.2, pp.141-148, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.canep.2011.03.007

F. Zhang, Y. Yang, L. Skrip, D. Hu, Y. Wang et al., Diabetes mellitus and risk of prostate cancer: an updated meta-analysis based on 12 case???control and 25 cohort studies, Acta Diabetologica, vol.50, issue.10, pp.235-281, 2012.
DOI : 10.1007/s00592-012-0439-5

J. Krycer and A. Brown, Cholesterol accumulation in prostate cancer: A classic observation from a modern perspective, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer, vol.1835, issue.2, pp.219-248, 1835.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbcan.2013.01.002

J. Morote, A. Celma, J. Planas, J. Placer, I. De-torres et al., Role of Serum Cholesterol and Statin Use in the Risk of Prostate Cancer Detection and Tumor Aggressiveness, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.15, issue.8, pp.13615-13638, 2014.
DOI : 10.3390/ijms150813615

K. Kotani, Y. Sekine, S. Ishikawa, I. Ikpot, K. Suzuki et al., High-Density Lipoprotein and Prostate Cancer: An Overview, Journal of Epidemiology, vol.23, issue.5, pp.313-322, 2013.
DOI : 10.2188/jea.JE20130006

K. Pelton, M. Freeman, and K. Solomon, Cholesterol and prostate cancer, Current Opinion in Pharmacology, vol.12, issue.6, pp.751-760, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.coph.2012.07.006

K. Solomon and M. Freeman, The Complex Interplay Between Cholesterol and Prostate Malignancy, Urologic Clinics of North America, vol.38, issue.3, pp.243-59, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ucl.2011.04.001