Prevalence of Pneumocystis Jiroveci pneumonia in Tunisian primary immunodeficient patients

Abstract : Pneumocystis Jiroveci pneumonia (PJP) is a rare opportunistic infection in immunodeficient patients in Tunisia, as well as in other Africain countries including those with a high prevalence of AIDS. In the literature, PJP has been reported in primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) namely SCID T–B– or T–B+ or X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of PJP in the different PID observed in Tunisia. Patients and methods This retrospective study concerned 290 cases of PID confirmed by immunological investigation including the study of specific and/or non-pecific humoral and cellular immunity. The identification of P. Jiroveci in patients suspected of pneumocystosis was achieved by parasitological investigation in bronchoalveolar lavages. Results A PID associated to a parasitologically confirmed pneumocystic infection was found in 9 out of 290 patients (3%) among whom the majority (7 patients) had an HLA class II combined immunodeficiency. The latter is an autosomic recessive disease which has been reported mainly in North African families. Indeed, this population is characterized by a high rate of consanguinity. Interestingly, no PJP has been observed neither in SCID T–B– or T–B+ nor in X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome. Discussion and conclusion PJP seems to be particularly frequent in HLA class II deficiency patients, since 7 out of 22 patients with this deficiency had a PJP (31%). Due to this defect, antigen presenting cells are unable to present the antigen to T lymphocytes demonstrating the critical role of CD4+ T lymphocytes responses in the immune response to this pathogen.
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Submitted on : Monday, April 30, 2018 - 3:58:30 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, April 24, 2019 - 4:32:11 PM

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I. Benmustapha-Darghouth, S. Trabelsi, B. Largueche, M. Bejaoui, K. Dellagi, et al.. Prevalence of Pneumocystis Jiroveci pneumonia in Tunisian primary immunodeficient patients. Archives de Pédiatrie, Elsevier, 2007, 14 (1), pp.20 - 23. ⟨10.1016/j.arcped.2006.10.012⟩. ⟨pasteur-01375240⟩

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