Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carried in Healthy Toddlers before PCV13 Introduction in Niamey, Niger

Abstract : BACKGROUND: To mitigate the burden of pneumococcal infections in Niger, a 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine, PCV13, was introduced for routine child vaccination in July 2014. In order to provide pre-vaccine baseline data and allow appreciation of changes on carriage due to vaccination, we analyzed retrospectively pneumococcal isolates obtained from healthy, 0 to 2 year old children prior to the vaccine introduction. METHODS: From June 5, 2007, to May 26, 2008, 1200 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy 0 to 2 year old children and analyzed by standard microbiological methods. Serotyping was done by SM-PCR and the data were analyzed with R version 2.15.0 (2012-03-30). RESULTS: Streptococcus pneumoniae was detected in 654/1200 children (54.5%) among whom 339 (51.8%) were males. The ages of the study subjects varied from few days to 26 months (mean = 7.1, median = 6, 95% CI [6.8-7.4]). Out of 654 frozen isolates, 377 (54.8%) were able to be re-grown and analyzed. In total, 32 different serogroups/serotypes were detected of which, the most prevalent were 6/(6A/6B/6C/6D) (15.6%), 23F (10.6%), 19F (9.3%), 14 (9%), 19A (5.6%), 23B (4.0%), 25F/38 (3.7%), 18/(18A/18B/18C/18F) (2.9%) and PCR non-typeable (16.4%). Eleven serogroups/serotypes accounting for 57.3% (216/377) were of PCV13 types. Of the 211/377 (56%) isolates tested for drug sensitivity, 23/211 (10.9%), 24/211 (11.4%), 9/211(4.3%) and 148/210 (70.5%) were respectively resistance to oxacillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and tetracycline. Thirteen of the oxacillin resistant isolates were additionally multidrug-resistant. No resistance was however detected to gentamycin500μg and to fluoroquinolones (ø Norfloxacin5μg <7mm). Age > 3 months and presence in family of more than one sibling aged < 6 years were significant risk factors for carriage. CONCLUSION: A global rate of 54.5% pneumococcal carriage was detected in this study. The introduced PCV13 vaccine should cover 57.3% (216/377) of circulating serogroups/serotypes, among which were those resistant to antibiotics. Age > 3 months and presence in family of children aged < 6 years were significant factors for pneumococcal carriage. The present data should help understanding post vaccine introduction changes in pneumococcal carriage and infections for better action.
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PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2017, 12 (1), 〈10.1371/journal.pone.0169547〉
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Sani Ousmane, Bouli Diallo, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Abdel-Kader Sanda, Amadou Soussou, et al.. Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Sensitivity Profile of Streptococcus pneumoniae Carried in Healthy Toddlers before PCV13 Introduction in Niamey, Niger. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2017, 12 (1), 〈10.1371/journal.pone.0169547〉. 〈pasteur-01634984〉

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