Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis appears to be maintained in multiple, geographically separate, and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations within the highlands of Madagascar. However, the dynamics of these locally differentiated subpopulations through time are mostly unknown. To address that gap and further inform our understanding of plague epidemiology, we investigated the phylogeography of Y. pestis in Madagascar over an 18 year period. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated whole genome sequences for 31 strains and discovered new SNPs that we used in conjunction with previously identified SNPs and variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) to genotype 773 Malagasy Y. pestis samples from 1995 to 2012. We mapped the locations where samples were obtained on a fine geographic scale to examine phylogeographic patterns through time. We identified 18 geographically separate and phylogenetically distinct subpopulations that display spatial and temporal stability, persisting in the same locations over a period of almost two decades. We found that geographic areas with higher levels of topographical relief are associated with greater levels of phylogenetic diversity and that sampling frequency can vary considerably among subpopulations and from year to year. We also found evidence of various Y. pestis dispersal events, including over long distances, but no evidence that any dispersal events resulted in successful establishment of a transferred genotype in a new location during the examined time period.
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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Public Library of Science, 2017, 11 (9), 〈10.1371/journal.pntd.0005887〉
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Amy Vogler, Voahangy Andrianaivoarimanana, Sandra Telfer, Carina Hall, Jason Sahl, et al.. Temporal phylogeography of Yersinia pestis in Madagascar: Insights into the long-term maintenance of plague. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Public Library of Science, 2017, 11 (9), 〈10.1371/journal.pntd.0005887〉. 〈pasteur-01635032〉

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