W. S. Abbott, A Method of Computing the Effectiveness of an Insecticide, Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.18, issue.2, pp.265-267, 1925.
DOI : 10.1093/jee/18.2.265a

V. Andrianaivoarimanana, K. Kreppel, N. Elissa, J. M. Duplantier, E. Carniel et al., Understanding the Persistence of Plague Foci in Madagascar, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.5, issue.11, p.2382, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002382.t001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00946701

E. Bertherat, Plague in Madagascar: Overview of the 2014?2015 epidemic season, Wkly Epidemiol Rec, vol.90, pp.271-252, 2015.

F. Beugnet and M. Franc, Insecticide and acaricide molecules and/or combinations to prevent pet infestation by ectoparasites, Trends in Parasitology, vol.28, issue.7, pp.267-279, 2012.
DOI : 10.1016/j.pt.2012.04.004

J. Borchert, R. Poche, N. Jeff, and M. Poche-richard-assignee, Control of ticks and fleas of rodents with systemic insecticides and insect growth regulators, U.S, p.708, 2003.

J. N. Borchert and R. M. , Poché, Inventors; and Scimetrics Limited Corp., Assignee, Pest control methods. U.S, p.160, 2011.

S. Boyer, A. Miarinjara, and N. Elissa, Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) Susceptibility to Deltamethrin in Madagascar, PLoS ONE, vol.40, issue.11, p.111998, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0111998.t003

URL : https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111998

M. I. Bar-zeev and S. Sternberg, FACTORS AFFECTING THE FEEDING OF FLEAS (XENOPSYLLA CHEOPIS ROTHSCH.) THROUGH A MEMBRANE, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, vol.98, issue.1, pp.60-68, 1962.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/98.1.107

E. Brygoo, Epidémiologie de la Peste a Madagascar, Med. Trop, vol.26, pp.39-137, 1966.

S. Chanteau, Atlas de la peste a Madagascar, 2006.
DOI : 10.4000/books.irdeditions.6582

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00142860

P. F. Chaton, P. Ravanel, J. C. Meyran, and M. Tissut, The Toxicological Effects and Bioaccumulation of Fipronil in Larvae of the Mosquito Aedes aegypti in Aqueous Medium, Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, vol.69, issue.3, pp.183-188, 2001.
DOI : 10.1006/pest.2000.2536

P. Cochet, P. Birkel, M. Brornet-petit, N. Bromet, and A. Weil, Skin distribution of fipronil by microautoradiography following topical administration to the beagle dog, European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, vol.30, issue.3, pp.211-216, 1997.
DOI : 10.1038/jid.1956.20

P. Coulanges, Y. Clerc, and E. Randrianantoanina, Etudes de Xenopsylla cheopis et Synopsyllus fonquerniei puces pestigènes malgaches: Mise en e ´vidence de leur résistance aux au DDT, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Madagascar, vol.49, pp.171-191, 1982.

B. Davari, H. Vatandoost, M. A. Oshaghi, H. Ladonni, A. A. Enayati et al., Selection of Anopheles stephensi with DDT and dieldrin and cross-resistance spectrum to pyrethroids and fipronil. Pestic, Biochem. Physiol, vol.89, pp.97-103, 2007.

R. M. Davis, Use of Orally Administered Chitin Inhibitor (Lufenuron) to Control Flea Vectors of Plague on Ground Squirrels in California, Journal of Medical Entomology, vol.36, issue.5, pp.562-567, 1999.
DOI : 10.1093/jmedent/36.5.562

M. W. Dryden, T. M. Denenberg, and S. Bunch, Control of fleas on naturally infested dogs and cats and in private residences with topical spot applications of fipronil or imidacloprid, Veterinary Parasitology, vol.93, issue.1, pp.69-75, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0304-4017(00)00318-6

M. W. Dryden, V. Smith, P. A. Payne, and T. L. Mctier, Comparative speed of kill of selamectin, imidacloprid, and fipronil?(S)-methoprene spoton formulations against fleas on cats, Vet. Ther, vol.6, pp.228-236, 2005.

S. L. Diaz, Efficacy of fipronil in the treatment of pediculosis in laboratory rats, Laboratory Animals, vol.39, issue.3, pp.331-335, 2005.
DOI : 10.1258/0023677054306980

J. M. Duplantier, J. B. Duchemin, S. Chanteau, and E. Carniel, From the recent lessons of the Malagasy foci towards a global understanding of the factors involved in plague reemergence, Veterinary Research, vol.36, issue.3, pp.437-453, 2005.
DOI : 10.1051/vetres:2005007

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00902976

O. Y. Eremina, I. V. Khalilova, and Y. V. Lopatina, Comparative study of residual effect duration of insecticides from different chemical groups on adult stage of Siphonaptera, Raas, vol.6, pp.108-117, 2010.

H. D. Hawlena, Z. Bashary, B. R. Abramsky, and . Krasnov, Benefits, Costs and Constraints of Anti-Parasitic Grooming in Adult and Juvenile Rodents, Ethology, vol.270, issue.4, pp.394-402, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/S0003-3472(86)80274-3

J. Kolaczinski and C. Curtis, Laboratory evaluation of fipronil, a phenylpyrazole insecticide, against adultAnopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) and investigation of its possible cross-resistance with dieldrin inAnopheles stephensi, Pest Management Science, vol.14, issue.1, pp.41-45, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2915.2000.00222.x

H. Leirs, K. S. Larsen, and J. Lodal, Palatability and toxicity of fipronil as a systemic insecticide in a bromadiolone rodenticide bait for rat and flea control, Medical and Veterinary Entomology, vol.14, issue.14, pp.299-303, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/jmedent/14.6.651

T. J. Mbise, Control of rodent fleas using systemic insecticides, International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, vol.14, issue.02, pp.235-239, 1994.
DOI : 10.1093/jmedent/14.2.161

C. Mccoy, A. B. Broce, and M. W. Dryden, Flea blood feeding patterns in cats treated with oral nitenpyram and the topical insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil and selamectin, Veterinary Parasitology, vol.156, issue.3-4, pp.293-301, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetpar.2008.04.028

S. Mears, F. Clark, M. Greenwood, and K. S. Larsen, Host location, survival and fecundity of the Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in relation to black rat Rattus rattus (Rodentia: Muridae) host age and sex, Bulletin of Entomological Research, vol.16, issue.05, pp.375-384, 2002.
DOI : 10.2307/3275037

M. E. Metzger and M. K. Rust, (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) on California Ground Squirrels (Rodentia: Sciuridae), Journal of Medical Entomology, vol.39, issue.1, pp.152-161, 2002.
DOI : 10.1603/0022-2585-39.1.152

A. Miarinjara and S. Boyer, Current Perspectives on Plague Vector Control in Madagascar: Susceptibility Status of Xenopsylla cheopis to 12 Insecticides, PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol.5, issue.2, p.4414, 2016.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004414.s001

T. Narahashi, X. Zhao, T. Ikeda, K. Nagata, and J. Z. Yeh, Differential actions of insecticides on target sites: basis for selective toxicity, Human & Experimental Toxicology, vol.26, issue.4, pp.361-366, 2007.
DOI : 10.1584/jpestics.26.277

R. Peveling, A. N. Mc-william, P. Nagel, H. Rasolomanana, L. Rakotomianina et al., Impact of locust control on harvester termites and endemic vertebrate predators in Madagascar, Journal of Applied Ecology, vol.40, issue.4, pp.729-741, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2664.2003.00833.x

R. Peveling, Environmental monitoring of locust control operations in Malaimbandy, 2000.

R. M. Poché, R. Garlapati, M. I. Singh, and D. M. Poché, Evaluation of Fipronil Oral Dosing to Cattle for Control of Adult and Larval Sand Flies Under Controlled Conditions, Journal of Medical Entomology, vol.50, issue.4, pp.833-837, 2013.
DOI : 10.1093/jmedent/50.2.833

J. Ratovonjato, J. B. Duchemin, J. M. Duplantier, and S. Chanteau, Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Xenopsyllinae), puces des foyers ruraux de peste des Hautes Terres malgaches: niveau de sensibilité au DDT, aux pyréthrino?pyréthrino?¨des et aux carbamates après 50 années de lutte chimique, Arch. Inst. Pasteur Madagascar, vol.66, pp.9-12, 2000.

A. Rojas-de-arias and A. Fournet, Fipronil Insecticide: Novel Application against Triatomine Insect Vectors of Chagas Disease, Mem??rias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, vol.III, issue.4, pp.535-539, 2002.
DOI : 10.1590/S0074-02761991000300002

J. G. Scott and Z. Wen, Toxicity of Fipronil to Susceptible and Resistant Strains of German Cockroaches (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae) and House Flies (Diptera: Muscidae), Journal of Economic Entomology, vol.90, issue.5, pp.1152-1156, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/jee/90.5.1152

W. L. Shoop, L. M. Gregory, M. Zakson-aiken, B. F. Michael, H. W. Haines et al., SYSTEMIC EFFICACY OF NODULISPORIC ACID AGAINST FLEAS ON DOGS, Journal of Parasitology, vol.87, issue.2, pp.419-423, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/0304-4017(94)00765-5

. Girolami, Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil ): Trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites, Environ. Sci. Pollut. R, vol.22, pp.5-34, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01171969

C. N. Smith and G. W. Eddy, Techniques for rearing and handling body lice, oriental rat fleas, and cat fleas, Bull. World Health Organ, vol.10, p.127, 1954.

. Jeannin, In vitro insecticidal effects of fipronil and b-cyfluthrin on larvae of the blowfly Lucilia sericata, Vet. Parasitol, vol.88, pp.261-268, 2000.

T. J. Slowik, R. S. Lane, and R. M. Davis, Field Trial of Systemically Delivered Arthropod Development-Inhibitor (Fluazuron) Used to Control Woodrat Fleas (Siphonaptera: Ceratophyllidae) and Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae), Journal of Medical Entomology, vol.38, issue.1, pp.75-84, 2001.
DOI : 10.1603/0022-2585-38.1.75

R. D. Xue, J. W. Pridgeon, J. J. Becnel, and A. Ali, Fipronil As A Larvicide Against the Container-Inhabiting Mosquito, Aedes albopictus, Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association, vol.25, issue.2, pp.224-227, 2009.
DOI : 10.2987/08-5816.1

M. Zakson-aiken, L. M. Gregory, P. T. Meinke, and W. L. Shoop, Systemic Activity of the Avermectins Against the Cat Flea (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), Journal of Medical Entomology, vol.38, issue.4, pp.576-580, 2001.
DOI : 10.1603/0022-2585-38.4.576