Evidence of multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations in Bangui, Central African Republic

Abstract : Background: Knowledge of insecticide resistance status in the main malaria vectors is an essential component of effective malaria vector control. This study presents the first evaluation of the status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae populations from Bangui, the Central African Republic. Methods: Anopheles mosquitoes were reared from larvae collected in seven districts of Bangui between September to November 2014. The World Health Organisation’s bioassay susceptibility tests to lambda-cyhalothrin (0.05%), deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%), malathion (5%), fenitrothion (1%) and bendiocarb (0.1%) were performed on adult females. Species and molecular forms as well as the presence of L1014F kdr and Ace-1R mutations were assessed by PCR. Additional tests were conducted to assess metabolic resistance status. Results: After 1 h exposure, a significant difference of knockdown effect was observed between districts in all insecticides tested except deltamethrin and malathion. The mortality rate (MR) of pyrethroids group ranging from 27% (CI: 19–37.5) in Petevo to 86% (CI: 77.6–92.1) in Gbanikola; while for DDT, MR ranged from 5% (CI: 1.6–11.3) in Centre-ville to 39% (CI: 29.4–49.3) in Ouango. For the organophosphate group a MR of 100% was observed in all districts except Gbanikola where a MR of 96% (CI: 90–98.9) was recorded. The mortality induced by bendiocarb was very heterogeneous, ranging from 75% (CI: 62.8–82.8) in Yapele to 99% (CI: 84.5–100) in Centre-ville. A high level of kdr-w (L1014F) frequency was observed in all districts ranging from 93 to 100%; however, no kdr-e (L1014S) and Ace-1R mutation were found in all tested mosquitoes. Data of biochemical analysis showed significant overexpression activities of cytochrome P450, GST and esterases in Gbanikola and Yapele (χ2 = 31.85, df = 2, P < 0.001). By contrast, esterases activities using α and β-naphthyl acetate were significantly low in mosquitoes from PK10 and Ouango in comparison to Kisumu strain (χ2 = 17.34, df = 2, P < 0.005). Conclusions: Evidence of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids as well as precocious emergence of resistance to carbamates were detected among A. gambiae mosquitoes from Bangui, including target-site mutations and metabolic mechanisms. The co-existence of these resistance mechanisms in A. gambiae may be a serious obstacle for the future success of malaria control programmes in this region.
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Marina Sangba, Aboubakar Sidick, Renaud Govoetchan, Christian Dide-Agossou, Razaki Ossè, et al.. Evidence of multiple insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae populations in Bangui, Central African Republic. Parasites and Vectors, BioMed Central, 2017, 10 (1), pp.23. 〈10.1186/s13071-016-1965-8〉. 〈pasteur-01650270〉

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