Sustained IFN-I Expression during Established Persistent Viral Infection: A “Bad Seed” for Protective Immunity

Abstract : Type I interferons (IFN-I) are one of the primary immune defenses against viruses. Similar to all other molecular mechanisms that are central to eliciting protective immune responses, IFN-I expression is subject to homeostatic controls that regulate cytokine levels upon clearing the infection. However, in the case of established persistent viral infection, sustained elevation of IFN-I expression bears deleterious effects to the host and is today considered as the major driver of inflammation and immunosuppression. In fact, numerous emerging studies place sustained IFN-I expression as a common nexus in the pathogenesis of multiple chronic diseases including persistent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), as well as the rodent-borne lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV clone 13). In this review, we highlight recent studies illustrating the molecular dysregulation and resultant cellular dysfunction in both innate and adaptive immune responses driven by sustained IFN-I expression. Here, we place particular emphasis on the efficacy of IFN-I receptor (IFNR) blockade towards improving immune responses against viral infections given the emerging therapeutic approach of blocking IFNR using neutralizing antibodies (Abs) in chronically infected patients.
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Xavier Dagenais-Lussier, Hamza Loucif, Armstrong Murira, Xavier Laulhé, Simona Stäger, et al.. Sustained IFN-I Expression during Established Persistent Viral Infection: A “Bad Seed” for Protective Immunity. Viruses, MDPI, 2018, 10 (1), pp.E12. ⟨10.3390/v10010012⟩. ⟨pasteur-01688977⟩

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