L. Liu, K. Hill, S. Oza, D. Hogan, and Y. Chu, Levels and Causes of Mortality under Age Five Years, Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health: Disease Control Priorities, vol.2, 2016.
DOI : 10.1596/978-1-4648-0348-2_ch4

, 2015) Levels & Trends in Child Mortality, Estimates Developed by the UN Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation, 2015.

S. Basu, Neonatal sepsis: the gut connection, Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, vol.34, p.25213719, 2015.
DOI : 10.1007/s10096-014-2232-6

S. Bhattacharya, Early diagnosis of resistant pathogens: how can it improve antimicrobial treatment?, Virulence, vol.4, p.23302786, 2013.

P. L. Woerther, C. Burdet, E. Chachaty, and A. Andremont, Trends in human fecal carriage of extendedspectrum beta-lactamases in the community: toward the globalization of CTX-M, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.26, p.24092853, 2013.

D. L. Paterson and R. A. Bonomo, Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a clinical update, Clin Microbiol Rev, vol.18, p.16223952, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/cmr.18.4.657-686.2005

URL : https://cmr.asm.org/content/18/4/657.full.pdf

K. Z. Vardakas, G. S. Tansarli, P. I. Rafailidis, and M. E. Falagas, Carbapenems versus alternative antibiotics for the treatment of bacteraemia due to Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a systematic review and meta-analysis, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.67, p.22915465, 2012.

A. J. Hsu and P. D. Tamma, Treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative infections in children, Clin Infect Dis, vol.58, p.24501388, 2014.

N. Stoesser, S. Xayaheuang, M. Vongsouvath, K. Phommasone, and I. Elliott, Colonization with Enterobacteriaceae producing ESBLs in children attending pre-school childcare facilities in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2015.

P. T. Koleva, J. S. Kim, J. A. Scott, and A. L. Kozyrskyj, Microbial programming of health and disease starts during fetal life, Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today, vol.105, p.26663884, 2015.
DOI : 10.1002/bdrc.21117

P. Bourlioux, B. Koletzko, F. Guarner, and V. Braesco, The intestine and its microflora are partners for the protection of the host: report on the Danone Symposium "The Intelligent Intestine, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.78, p.14522724, 2002.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00416301

M. A. Carl, I. M. Ndao, A. C. Springman, S. D. Manning, and J. R. Johnson, Sepsis from the gut: the enteric habitat of bacteria that cause late-onset neonatal bloodstream infections, Clin Infect Dis, vol.58, p.24647013, 2014.

V. Nordberg, Q. Peralta, A. Galindo, T. Turlej-rogacka, A. Iversen et al., High proportion of intestinal colonization with successful epidemic clones of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a neonatal intensive care unit in Ecuador, PLoS One, vol.8, p.24146896, 2013.

M. C. Collado, M. Cernada, C. Bauerl, M. Vento, and G. Perez-martinez, Microbial ecology and hostmicrobiota interactions during early life stages, Gut Microbes, vol.3, p.22743759, 2012.
DOI : 10.4161/gmic.21215

URL : https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.4161/gmic.21215?needAccess=true

G. J. Chan, A. C. Lee, A. H. Baqui, J. Tan, and R. E. Black, Risk of early-onset neonatal infection with maternal infection or colonization: a global systematic review and meta-analysis, PLoS Med, vol.10, p.23976885, 2013.

F. Chereau, P. Herindrainy, B. Garin, B. T. Huynh, and F. Randrianirina, Colonization of extendedspectrum-beta-lactamase-and NDM-1-producing Enterobacteriaceae among pregnant women in the community in a low-income country: a potential reservoir for transmission of multiresistant Enterobacteriaceae to neonates, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.59, p.25845871, 2015.

B. Huynh, E. Kermorvant-duchemin, P. Herindrainy, F. Rakotoarimanana, and F. Herisoa, Antibiotic resistance, early detection, and treatment of neonatal infections in a communitybased cohort, Press)), 2017.

L. S. Beukes, T. King, and S. Schmidt, Assessment of pit latrines in a peri-urban community in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) as a source of antibiotic resistant E. coli strains, Int J Hyg Environ Health, vol.220, p.28867170, 2017.

P. Herindrainy, F. Randrianirina, R. Ratovoson, R. Hariniana, E. Buisson et al., Rectal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacilli in community settings in Madagascar, PLoS One, vol.6, p.21829498, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00614552

C. Ewers, M. Grobbel, I. Stamm, P. A. Kopp, and I. Diehl, Emergence of human pandemic O25:H4-ST131 CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli among companion animals, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.65, pp.651-660, 2010.

J. L. Platell, R. N. Cobbold, J. R. Johnson, A. Heisig, and P. Heisig, Commonality among fluoroquinolone-resistant sequence type ST131 extraintestinal Escherichia coli isolates from humans and companion animals in Australia, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.55, p.21646486, 2011.

, CA-SFM) European Committee on antimicrobial Susceptibility testing (EUCAST), Recommandations Janvier, vol.1, 2015.

J. Penders, C. Thijs, C. Vink, F. F. Stelma, and B. Snijders, Factors influencing the composition of the intestinal microbiota in early infancy, Pediatrics, vol.118, p.16882802, 2006.

C. Mammina, D. Carlo, P. Cipolla, D. Giuffre, M. Casuccio et al., Surveillance of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacilli in a neonatal intensive care unit: prominent role of cross transmission, Am J Infect Control, vol.35, p.17482993, 2007.

S. M. Hijazi, M. A. Fawzi, F. M. Ali, A. E. Galil, and K. H. , Multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and associated risk factors in community infants in Lebanon, J Infect Dev Ctries, vol.10, p.27694727, 2016.

C. Kothari, R. Gaind, L. C. Singh, A. Sinha, and V. Kumari, Community acquisition of beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae in neonatal gut, BMC Microbiol, vol.13, p.23773627, 2013.

E. Ruppe, P. L. Woerther, A. Diop, A. M. Sene, D. Costa et al., Carriage of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli isolates among children living in a remote village in Senegal, Antimicrob Agents Chemother, vol.53, p.19364858, 2009.

M. G. Tellevik, B. Blomberg, O. Kommedal, S. Y. Maselle, and N. Langeland, High Prevalence of Faecal Carriage of ESBL-Producing Enterobacteriaceae among Children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. PLoS One, vol.11, p.27936054, 2016.

S. Karanika, T. Karantanos, M. Arvanitis, C. Grigoras, and E. Mylonakis, Fecal Colonization with Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae and Risk Factors among Healthy Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis, Clin Infect Dis, 2016.

P. L. Woerther, C. Angebault, H. Jacquier, H. C. Hugede, and A. C. Janssens, Massive increase, spread, and exchange of extended spectrum beta-lactamase-encoding genes among intestinal Enterobacteriaceae in hospitalized children with severe acute malnutrition in Niger, Clin Infect Dis, vol.53, p.21890771, 2011.

T. Andriatahina, F. Randrianirina, E. R. Hariniana, A. Talarmin, and H. Raobijaona, High prevalence of fecal carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a pediatric unit in Madagascar, BMC Infect Dis, vol.10, p.20624313, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00510748

P. Das, A. K. Singh, T. Pal, S. Dasgupta, and T. Ramamurthy, Colonization of the gut with Gramnegative bacilli, its association with neonatal sepsis and its clinical relevance in a developing country, J Med Microbiol, vol.60, p.21719575, 2011.

A. Peretz, A. Skuratovsky, E. Khabra, A. Adler, and N. Pastukh, Peripartum maternal transmission of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase organism to newborn infants, Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis, 2016.

T. Ge, F. Moges, S. Eshetie, B. Yeshitela, and E. Abate, Bacterial etiologic agents causing neonatal sepsis and associated risk factors in Gondar, BMC Pediatr, vol.17, p.28587631, 2017.

N. T. Mueller, E. Bakacs, J. Combellick, Z. Grigoryan, and M. G. Dominguez-bello, The infant microbiome development: mom matters, Trends Mol Med, vol.21, p.25578246, 2015.

M. G. Dominguez-bello, E. K. Costello, M. Contreras, M. Magris, and G. Hidalgo, Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, vol.107, p.20566857, 2010.

M. J. Blaser and S. Falkow, What are the consequences of the disappearing human microbiota?, Nat Rev Microbiol, vol.7, pp.887-894, 2009.

I. H. Lohr, S. Rettedal, O. B. Natas, U. Naseer, and K. Oymar, Long-term faecal carriage in infants and intra-household transmission of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae following a nosocomial outbreak, J Antimicrob Chemother, vol.68, p.23288401, 2013.

F. Althabe, C. Sosa, J. M. Belizan, L. Gibbons, and F. Jacquerioz, Cesarean section rates and maternal and neonatal mortality in low-, medium-, and high-income countries: an ecological study, Birth, vol.33, p.17150064, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1523-536x.2006.00118.x

A. P. Betran, M. Merialdi, J. A. Lauer, W. Bing-shun, and J. Thomas, Rates of caesarean section: analysis of global, regional and national estimates, Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol, vol.21, p.17302638, 2007.

C. K. Stanton and S. A. Holtz, Levels and trends in cesarean birth in the developing world, Stud Fam Plann, vol.37, p.16570729, 2006.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1728-4465.2006.00082.x

P. Buekens, S. Curtis, and S. Alayon, Demographic and Health Surveys: caesarean section rates in sub-Saharan Africa, BMJ, vol.326, p.12531845, 2003.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.326.7381.136

URL : https://www.bmj.com/content/326/7381/136.full.pdf

J. P. Nelson, Indications and appropriateness of caesarean sections performed in a tertiary referral centre in Uganda: a retrospective descriptive study, Pan Afr Med J, vol.26, p.28451041, 2017.

S. Rettedal, H. Lohr, I. Natas, O. Sundsfjord, A. Oymar et al., Risk factors for acquisition of CTXM-15 extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae during an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit in Norway, Scand J Infect Dis, vol.45, p.22991960, 2013.

R. R. Persaud, M. B. Azad, R. S. Chari, M. R. Sears, and A. B. Becker, Perinatal antibiotic exposure of neonates in Canada and associated risk factors: a population-based study, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med, vol.28, p.25053193, 2015.

I. Mylonas, Antibiotic chemotherapy during pregnancy and lactation period: aspects for consideration, Arch Gynecol Obstet, vol.283, p.20814687, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00404-010-1646-3

I. N. Okeke, R. Laxminarayan, Z. A. Bhutta, A. G. Duse, and P. Jenkins, Antimicrobial resistance in developing countries. Part I: recent trends and current status, Lancet Infect Dis, vol.5, pp.481-493, 2005.

W. H. Organization, Antimicrobial resistance: global report on surveillance, 2014.

L. M. Bebell and A. N. Muiru, Antibiotic use and emerging resistance: how can resource-limited countries turn the tide?, Glob Heart, vol.9, p.25667187, 2014.

H. Goossens, Antibiotic consumption and link to resistance, Clin Microbiol Infect, vol.15, pp.12-15, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02725.x

URL : https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02725.x

L. J. Shallcross and D. S. Davies, Antibiotic overuse: a key driver of antimicrobial resistance, Br J Gen Pract, vol.64, p.25452508, 2014.

K. Graham, C. Sinyangwe, S. Nicholas, R. King, and S. Mukupa, Rational use of antibiotics by community health workers and caregivers for children with suspected pneumonia in Zambia: a crosssectional mixed methods study, BMC Public Health, vol.16, p.27567604, 2016.

H. Abdel-hady, S. Hawas, M. El-daker, and R. El-kady, Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in neonatal intensive care unit, J Perinatol, vol.28, p.18580881, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/jp.2008.73

URL : https://www.nature.com/articles/jp200873.pdf

V. Crivaro, M. Bagattini, M. F. Salza, F. Raimondi, and F. Rossano, Risk factors for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae acquisition in a neonatal intensive care unit, J Hosp Infect, vol.67, p.17884248, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhin.2007.07.026

X. Li, X. Xu, X. Yang, M. Luo, and P. Liu, Risk factors for the infection and/or colonization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in a neonatal intensive care unit: a meta-analysis, Int J Antimicrob Agents, 2017.