S. A. Shwiff, B. Hatch, A. Anderson, L. H. Nel, K. Leroux et al., Towards canine rabies elimination in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: assessment of health economic data, Transbound Emerg Dis, vol.63, issue.4, pp.408-423, 2016.

J. L. Elser, B. G. Hatach, L. H. Taylor, L. H. Nel, and S. A. Shwiff, Towards canine rabies elimination: economic comparisons of three project sites, Transbound Emerg Dis, vol.65, issue.1, pp.135-180, 2018.

C. Rupprecht, I. Kuzmin, and F. Meslin, Lyssaviruses and rabies: current conundrums, concerns, contradictions and controversies, Research, vol.6, p.184, 1000.

, Vaccines Rabies. WHO position paper, Wkly Epidemiol Rec, vol.16, issue.93, pp.201-221, 2018.

, Guidelines on clinical evaluation of vaccines: Regulatory expectations. Replacement of Annex 1 of WHO, Technical Report Series, issue.924, pp.503-573, 2017.

, Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper-recommendations. Vaccine, vol.28, pp.7140-7142, 2010.

, Rabies vaccines. WHO position paper, Wkly Epidemiol Rec, vol.82, pp.425-460, 2007.

, WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies. Second report. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser, issue.982, pp.1-139, 2013.

, WHO Expert Consultation on rabies. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser, vol.931, pp.1-88, 2005.

A. Tarantola, Four thousand years of concepts relating to rabies in animals and humans, Its prevention and its cure, Trop Med Infect Dis, vol.2, issue.2, pp.5-26, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01739365

L. Dacheux, O. Delmas, and H. Bourhy, Human rabies encephalitis prevention and treatment: progress since Pasteur's discovery, Infect Disord Drug Targets, vol.11, issue.3, pp.251-99, 2011.

X. Wu, T. G. Smith, and C. E. Rupprecht, From brain passage to cell adaptation: the road of human rabies vaccine development, Expert Rev Vaccines, vol.10, issue.11, pp.1597-608, 2011.

A. R. Kammer and H. C. Ertl, Rabies vaccines: from the past to the 21st century, Hybrid Hybridomics, vol.21, issue.2, pp.123-130, 2002.

, WHO Expert Committee on Rabies, in WHO Technical Report Series, vol.824, pp.1-150, 1984.

J. M. Ramos, N. Melendez, F. Reyes, G. Gudiso, D. Biru et al., Epidemiology of animal bites and other potential rabies exposures and anti-rabies vaccine utilization in a rural area in Southern Ethiopia, Ann Agric Environ Med, vol.22, issue.1, pp.76-85, 2015.

E. Fuenzalida, Human pre-exposure rabies immunization with suckling mouse brain vaccine, Bull World Health Organ, vol.46, issue.4, pp.561-564, 1972.

G. Sampath, A. Banzhoff, A. Deshpande, C. Malerczyk, A. K. Arora et al., Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of the purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine manufactured in India and Germany: a randomized, single blind, multicentre, phase IV clinical study, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol.2017, pp.1-8

H. S. Ravish, Pre-exposure prophylaxis against rabies in children: safety of purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine (Vaxirab N) when administered by intradermal route, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol.10, issue.2, pp.319-339, 2014.

J. Wang, F. Luo, Z. Feng, L. Li, Y. Bai et al., Immunogenicity and safety of purified vero cell rabies vaccine (PVRV) produced by Liaoning Cheng Da Co. under Zagreb 2-1-1 or 5-dose Essen regimen in Chinese adults aged 50 and above, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol.13, issue.1, pp.144-50, 2017.

J. Peng, S. Lu, Z. Zhu, M. Zhang, Q. Hu et al., Safety comparison of four types of rabies vaccines in patients with WHO category II animal exposure: an observation based on different age groups, Medicine (Baltimore), vol.95, issue.47, p.5049, 2016.

A. Narayana, A. Manoharan, M. S. Narayan, S. M. Kalappa, G. Biligumba et al., Comparison of safety and immunogenicity of 2 WHO prequalified rabies vaccines administered by one week, 4 site intra dermal regimen (4-4-4-0-0) in animal bite cases, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol.11, issue.7, pp.1748-53, 2015.

I. Vodopija, P. Sureau, S. Smerdel, M. Lafon, Z. Baklaic et al., Interaction of rabies vaccine with human rabies immunoglobulin and reliability of a 2-1-1 schedule application for postexposure treatment, Vaccine, vol.6, issue.3, pp.283-289, 1988.

C. E. Rupprecht, D. J. Briggs, C. M. Brown, R. Franka, S. L. Katz et al., Evidence for a 4-dose vaccine schedule for human rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in previously non-vaccinated individuals, Vaccine, vol.27, issue.51, pp.7141-7149, 2009.

C. E. Rupprecht, D. J. Briggs, C. M. Brown, R. Franka, S. L. Katz et al., Use of a reduced (4-dose) vaccine schedule for postexposure prophylaxis to prevent human rabies: recommendations of the advisory committee on immunization practices, MMWR Recomm Rep, vol.59, issue.2, pp.1-9, 2010.

S. Chutivongse, H. Wilde, C. Supich, G. M. Baer, and D. B. Fishbein, Postexposure prophylaxis for rabies with antiserum and intradermal vaccination, Lancet, vol.335, issue.8694, pp.896-904, 1990.
DOI : 10.1016/0140-6736(90)90488-q

D. J. Briggs, A. Banzhoff, U. Nicolay, S. Sirikwin, B. Dumavibhat et al., Antibody response of patients after postexposure rabies vaccination with small intradermal doses of purified chick embryo cell vaccine or purified Vero cell rabies vaccine, Bull World Health Organ, vol.78, issue.5, pp.693-701, 2000.

M. J. Warrell, D. A. Warrell, P. Chanthavanich, S. Al, X. P. Duteil et al., Economical multiple-site intradermal immunisation with human diploid-cell-strain vaccine is effective for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis, Lancet, vol.11, pp.1059-62, 1985.
DOI : 10.1016/s0140-6736(85)92367-0

P. Khawplod, H. Wilde, S. Sirikwin, M. Benjawongkulchai, S. Limusanno et al., Revision of the Thai Red Cross intradermal rabies postexposure regimen by eliminating the 90-day booster injection, Vaccine, vol.24, issue.16, pp.3084-3090, 2006.

S. N. Madhusudana, S. M. Saha, M. Sood, and S. N. Saxena, Multisite intradermal vaccination using tissue culture vaccine as an economical prophylactic regimen against rabies, Indian J Med Res, vol.87, pp.1-4, 1988.

M. J. Warrell, A. Riddell, L. Yu, J. Phipps, L. Diggle et al., A simplified 4site economical intradermal post-exposure rabies vaccine regimen: a randomised controlled comparison with standard methods, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.2, issue.4, p.224, 2008.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000224

URL : https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article/file?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0000224&type=printable

A. Tarantola, S. Ly, S. In, S. Ong, Y. Peng et al., Rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin in cambodia: use and obstacles to use, J Travel Med, vol.22, issue.5, pp.348-52, 2015.
DOI : 10.1111/jtm.12228

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01739377

K. Hampson, L. Coudeville, T. Lembo, M. Sambo, A. Kieffer et al., Global alliance for rabies control partners for rabies prevention., Estimating the global burden of endemic canine rabies, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.9, issue.4, p.3709, 2015.

, Guideline on clinical evaluation of vaccines, European Medicines Agency. p, pp.1-21, 2018.

, Guidelines on clinical evaluation of vaccines: regulatory expectations. Replacement of Annex 1 of WHO, Technical Report Series, vol.9, issue.924, pp.1-71, 2017.

J. Ren, L. Yao, J. Sun, and Z. Gong, Zagreb regimen, an abbreviated intramuscular schedule for rabies vaccination, Clin Vaccine Immunol, vol.22, issue.1, pp.1-5, 2015.

M. K. Sudarshan, D. H. Narayana, S. N. Madhusudana, R. Holla, B. Y. Ashwin et al., Evaluation of a one week intradermal regimen for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis: results of a randomized, open label, activecontrolled trial in healthy adult volunteers in India, Hum Vaccin Immunother, vol.8, issue.8, pp.1077-81, 2012.

P. Shantavasinkul, T. Tantawichien, H. Wilde, A. Sawangvaree, A. Kumchat et al., Postexposure rabies prophylaxis completed in 1 week: preliminary study, Clin Infect Dis, vol.50, issue.1, pp.56-60, 2010.

J. F. Nicolas and B. Guy, Intradermal, epidermal and transcutaneous vaccination: from immunology to clinical practice, Expert Rev Vaccines, vol.7, issue.8, pp.1201-1215, 2008.

A. Tarantola, S. Blanchi, J. Cappelle, S. Ly, M. Chan et al., Rabies postexposure prophylaxis noncompletion after dog bites: estimating the unseen to meet the needs of the underserved, Am J Epidemiol, vol.187, issue.2, pp.306-321, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01739342

, WHO Expert Consultation on Rabies, p.183, 2018.

, International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP)-Glossary, 2018.

B. Dietzschold, J. Li, M. Faber, and M. Schnell, Concepts in the pathogenesis of rabies, Future Virol, vol.3, issue.5, pp.481-90, 2008.

K. Suwansrinon, H. Wilde, M. Benjavongkulchai, U. Banjongkasaena, S. Lerjarutorn et al., Survival of neutralizing antibody in previously rabies vaccinated subjects: a prospective study showing long lasting immunity, Vaccine, vol.24, issue.18, pp.3878-80, 2006.

D. Brown, J. J. Featherstone, A. R. Fooks, S. Gettner, E. Lloyd et al., Intradermal pre-exposure rabies vaccine elicits long lasting immunity, Vaccine, vol.26, issue.31, pp.3909-3921, 2008.

C. Strady, L. Andreoletti, S. Baumard, A. Servettaz, R. Jaussaud et al., Immunogenicity and booster efficacy of pre-exposure rabies vaccination, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, vol.103, issue.11, pp.1159-64, 2009.

J. Lang, E. Feroldi, and N. C. Vien, Pre-exposure purified vero cell rabies vaccine and concomitant routine childhood vaccinations: 5-year post-vaccination follow-up study of an infant cohort in Vietnam, J Trop Pediatr, vol.55, issue.1, pp.26-31, 2009.

, WHO Immunological Basis for Immunization Series, vol.17, pp.1-49, 2017.

A. Tarantola, S. Ly, M. Chan, S. In, Y. Peng et al., Intradermal Rabies PostExposure Prophylaxis can be Abridged with No Measurable Impact on Clinical Outcome in Cambodia, Vaccine, 2003.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01943560

J. Concato, Study design and ''evidence" in patient-oriented research, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.187, issue.11, pp.1167-72, 2013.

J. Millum and C. Grady, The ethics of placebo-controlled trials: methodological justifications, Contemp Clin Trials, vol.36, issue.2, pp.510-514, 2013.

D. Sr, R. B. Massaro, J. M. Sullivan, and L. M. , Non-inferiority trials: design concepts and issues-the encounters of academic consultants in statistics, Stat Med, vol.22, issue.2, pp.169-86, 2003.

L. Mauri, D. Sr, and R. B. , Challenges in the design and interpretation of noninferiority trials, N Engl J Med, vol.377, issue.14, pp.1357-67, 2017.

J. R. Mcmillan, C. Conlon, and B. Nuffield, Council on, The ethics of research related to health care in developing countries, J Med Ethics, vol.30, issue.2, pp.204-210, 2004.

R. K. Lie, The standard of care debate: the Declaration of Helsinki versus the international consensus opinion, J Med Ethics, vol.30, issue.2, pp.190-193, 2004.

V. Duong, A. Tarantola, S. Ong, C. Mey, R. Choeung et al., Laboratory diagnostics in dog-mediated rabies: an overview of performance and a proposed strategy for various settings, Int J Infect Dis, vol.46, pp.107-121, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01476330

S. D. Painter, I. G. Ovsyannikova, and G. A. Poland, The weight of obesity on the human immune response to vaccination, Vaccine, vol.33, issue.36, pp.4422-4431, 2015.

A. Tarantola, Y. Crabol, B. J. Mahendra, S. In, H. Barennes et al., Caring for patients with rabies in developing countries-the neglected importance of palliative care, Trop Med Int Health, vol.21, issue.4, pp.564-571, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-01429841

S. C. Arya, Rabies antibody profile among pregnant females administered therapeutic postexposure vaccine during pregnancy, their neonates and infants, Vaccine, vol.8, issue.4, pp.410-411, 1990.

M. E. Abazeed and S. Cinti, Rabies prophylaxis for pregnant women, Emerg Infect Dis, vol.13, issue.12, pp.1966-1973, 2007.

M. K. Sudarshan, S. N. Madhusudana, B. J. Mahenra, D. H. Ashwathnaryana, M. Jayakumary et al., Post exposure rabies prophylaxis with Purified Verocell Rabies vaccine: a study of immunoresponse in pregnant women and their matched controls, Indian J Public Health, vol.43, issue.2, pp.76-84, 1999.

K. W. Bernard, D. B. Fishbein, K. D. Miller, R. A. Parker, S. Waterman et al., Pre-exposure rabies immunization with human diploid cell vaccine: decreased antibody responses in persons immunized in developing countries, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.34, issue.3, pp.633-680, 1985.

D. N. Taylor, C. Wasi, and K. Bernard, Chloroquine prophylaxis associated with a poor antibody response to human diploid cell rabies vaccine, Lancet, vol.1, issue.8391, p.1405, 1984.

W. Suraweera, S. K. Morris, R. Kumar, D. A. Warrell, M. J. Warrell et al., Million Death Study, Collaborators, Deaths from symptomatically identifiable furious rabies in India: a nationally representative mortality survey, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, vol.6, issue.10, p.1847, 2012.

H. Chu and M. E. Halloran, Bayesian estimation of vaccine efficacy, Clin Trials, vol.1, issue.3, pp.306-320, 2004.

K. Hur, D. Hedeker, W. Henderson, S. Khuri, and J. Daley, Modeling clustered count data with excess zeros in health care outcomes research, Health Services Outcomes Res Methodol, vol.3, pp.5-20, 2002.

D. Brown, A. R. Fooks, and M. Schweiger, Using intradermal rabies vaccine to boost immunity in people with low rabies antibody levels, Adv Prev Med, p.601789, 2011.

T. Kamoltham, W. Thinyounyong, P. Khawplod, P. Phraisuwan, P. Phongchamnaphai et al., Immunogenicity of simulated PCECV postexposure booster doses 1, 3, and 5 years after 2-dose and 3-dose primary rabies vaccination in schoolchildren, Adv Prev Med, p.403201, 2011.

X. Zhang, Z. Zhu, and C. Wang, Persistence of rabies antibody 5 years after postexposure prophylaxis with vero cell antirabies vaccine and antibody response to a single booster dose, Clin Vaccine Immunol, vol.18, issue.9, pp.1477-1486, 2011.