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Evidence of Insecticide Resistance to Pyrethroids and Bendiocarb in Anopheles funestus from Tsararano, Marovoay District, Madagascar

Abstract : INTRODUCTION: In Madagascar, malaria control relies on the countrywide use of long lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) and on indoor residual spraying (IRS) in the central highland area as well as a small area on the eastern coast. We tested insecticide resistance mechanisms of Anopheles funestus from Tsararano, a malaria endemic village in the coastal health district of Marovoay. METHODS: Insecticide susceptibility bioassays were done in July 2017 on first-generation Anopheles funestus (F1) to assess (i) the susceptibility to permethrin (0.05%), deltamethrin (0.05%), DDT (4%), malathion (5%), fenitrothion (1%), and bendiocarb (0.1%); (ii) the effect of preexposure to the piperonyl butoxide (PBO) synergist; and (iii) the enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450, esterases, and glutathione S-transferases (GST). RESULTS: Our results demonstrated that An. funestus was phenotypically resistant to pyrethroids and bendiocarb, with a mortality rate (MR) of 33.6% (95%CI: 24.5-43.7%) and 86% (95%CI: 77.6-92.1%), respectively. In contrast, An. funestus were 100% susceptible to DDT and organophosphates (malathion and fenitrothion). Preexposure of An. funestus to PBO synergist significantly restored the susceptibility to bendiocarb (MR=100%) and increased the MR in the pyrethroid group, from 96% (95%CI: 90.0-98.9%) to 100% for deltamethrin and permethrin, respectively (χ 2 = 43, df = 3, P< 0.0001). Enzymatic activities of cytochrome P450 and α-esterases were significantly elevated among An. funestus compared with the IPM reference strain (Mann-Whitney U= 30, P<0.0001; U = 145.5, P <0.0001, respectively). No significant differences of β-esterases activities compared to the IPM reference strain were observed (Mann-Whitney U = 392.5, P = 0.08). CONCLUSION: In Tsararano, despite the absence of an IRS programme, there is evidence of high levels of insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and bendiocarb in An.
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Tsiriniaina Rakotondranaivo, Solohery Randriamanarivo, Mihajarilala Tanjona, Inès Vigan-Womas, Milijaona Randrianarivelojosia, et al.. Evidence of Insecticide Resistance to Pyrethroids and Bendiocarb in Anopheles funestus from Tsararano, Marovoay District, Madagascar. BioMed Research International , Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2018, 2018, pp.5806179. ⟨10.1155/2018/5806179⟩. ⟨pasteur-01967356⟩

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