Leishmania donovani Induces Autophagy in Human Blood–Derived Neutrophils

Abstract : Neutrophils, the essential components of the innate immune system, are recruited in large numbers to the pathogen site of entry. Several pathogens induce neutrophil autophagy; however, function of autophagic events during Leishmania parasite infection remain unknown. In this article, we report a finding that is new, to our knowledge, of how Leishmania-induced human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (hPMN) autophagy regulates the silent mode of parasite transfer to macrophages by influencing the engulfment of infected cells. Leishmania infection induced a time-dependent autophagy increase responsive to block by 3-methyladenine but sensitive to ULK1/2 inhibition only after 3 h. This suggested the prevalence of canonical autophagy during later hours, ULK1/2 inhibition being able to block only canonical autophagy. Interaction of Rubicon and Beclin-1 at 1 h postinfection affirmed the prevalence of noncanonical autophagy during early infection. There was a reduction in macrophage uptake of parasite-exposed hPMNs treated with 3-methyladenine or ULK1/2 inhibitor, suggesting the involvement of both noncanonical and canonical autophagy in neutrophil engulfment. Autophagy inducer rapamycin augmented neutrophil engulfment by macrophages. Redistribution of hPMN surface CD47 encouraged neutrophil uptake. Activation of ERK, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and NADPH oxidase-mediated reactive oxygen species generation were induced after parasite binding. The lpg1-knockout parasites expressing defective lipophosphoglycan did not induce autophagy, indicating that lipophosphoglycan is necessary for interaction with the neutrophils. Autophagy induction was TLR2/4 independent because the receptor blockade did not interfere with infection-induced autophagy. In summary, the engulfment of neutrophils by the macrophages was influenced by the escalation of hPMN autophagy, which is an important event during Leishmania infection.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, May 21, 2019 - 8:34:58 PM
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Durgesh Manohar Pitale, Neelaram Sahadev Gendalur, Albert Descoteaux, Chandrima Shaha. Leishmania donovani Induces Autophagy in Human Blood–Derived Neutrophils. Journal of Immunology, Publisher : Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins, c1950-. Latest Publisher : Bethesda, MD : American Association of Immunologists, 2019, 202 (4), pp.1163-1175. ⟨10.4049/jimmunol.1801053⟩. ⟨pasteur-02136181⟩

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