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Activity and Functional Importance of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors

Abstract : Helicobacter pylori is a very successful Gram-negative pathogen colonizing the stomach of humans worldwide. Infections with this bacterium can generate pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis and peptic ulceration to gastric cancer. The best characterized H. pylori virulence factors that cause direct cell damage include an effector protein encoded by the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), a type IV secretion system (T4SS) encoded in the cag-pathogenicity island (cag PAI), vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), high temperature requirement A (HtrA, a serine protease) and cholesterol glycosyl-transferase (CGT). Since these H. pylori factors are either surface-exposed, secreted or translocated, they can directly interact with host cell molecules and are able to hijack cellular functions. Studies on these bacterial factors have progressed substantially in recent years. Here, we review the current status in the characterization of signaling cascades by these factors in vivo and in vitro, which comprise the disruption of cell-to-cell junctions, induction of membrane rearrangements, cytoskeletal dynamics, proliferative, pro-inflammatory, as well as, pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic responses or immune evasion. The impact of these signal transduction modules in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infections is discussed.
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https://hal-riip.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-02196003
Contributor : Dionyssios Sgouras <>
Submitted on : Friday, July 26, 2019 - 4:18:58 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 10, 2020 - 10:42:22 AM

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Dionyssios Sgouras, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Silja Wessler. Activity and Functional Importance of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, Springer Nature Switzerland, 2019, Advances in Microbiology, Infectious Diseases and Public Health, ⟨10.1007/5584_2019_358⟩. ⟨pasteur-02196003⟩

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