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Spatiotemporal multiple insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations in French Guiana: need for alternative vector control

Abstract : BACKGROUND : Aedes aegypti is the sole vector of urban arboviruses in French Guiana. Overtime, the species has been responsible for the transmission of viruses during yellow fever, dengue, chikungunya and Zika outbreaks. Decades of vector control have produced resistant populations to deltamethrin, the sole molecule available to control adult mosquitoes in this French Territory. OBJECTIVES : Our surveillance aimed to provide public health authorities with data on insecticide resistance in Ae. aegypti populations and other species of interest in French Guiana. Monitoring resistance to the insecticide used for vector control and to other molecule is a key component to develop an insecticide resistance management plan. METHODS : In 2009, we started to monitor resistance phenotypes to deltamethrin and target-site mechanisms in Ae. aegypti populations across the territory using the WHO impregnated paper test and allelic discrimination assay. FINDINGS : Eight years surveillance revealed well-installed resistance and the dramatic increase of alleles on the sodium voltage-gated gene, known to confer resistance to pyrethroids (PY). In addition, we observed that populations were resistant to malathion (organophosphorous, OP) and alpha-cypermethrin (PY). Some resistance was also detected to molecules from the carbamate family. Finally, those populations somehow recovered susceptibility against fenitrothion (OP). In addition, other species distributed in urban areas revealed to be also resistant to pyrethroids. CONCLUSION : The resistance level can jeopardize the efficiency of chemical adult control in absence of other alternatives and conducts to strongly rely on larval control measures to reduce mosquito burden. Vector control strategies need to evolve to maintain or regain efficacy during epidemics.
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Amandine Guidez, Nicolas Pocquet, Johana Restrepo, Luana Mathieu, Pascal Gaborit, et al.. Spatiotemporal multiple insecticide resistance in Aedes aegypti populations in French Guiana: need for alternative vector control. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde, 2020, 115, pp.e200313. ⟨10.1590/0074-02760200313⟩. ⟨pasteur-03195668⟩

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