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Étude épidémiologique, écologique et moléculaire du monkeypoxvirus en Côte d’Ivoire

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Monkeypoxvirus is an Orthopoxvirus of the family Poxvirus which is responsible for febrile eruption identical to that of smallpox at a less severe degree. Its potential reservoir should be Funisciurus anerythrus and transmission to humans is usually occur by contact with the reservoir. It is a zoonosis that has emerged in humans since the cessation of vaccination against smallpox. Its epidemiological and clinical evolution in recent years make it a worldwide concern. METHODOLOGY: This study was conducted between 2013 and 2017 with two components. An animal component , micromammal captures were carried out at 9 sites in three zones, including the peri-urban zone, the peri-rural zone and the protected areas zone. The liver, lung and kidney tissues of captured micromammals were collected and analyzed by standard PCR and real-time PCR to search for the virus. A human component dealt with biocollections of sera and oral fluids collected during the national surveillance of yellow fever and measles between 2013 and 2017 and cutaneous samples of suspicious lesions of Molluscum contagiosum in the Dermatology departments of Yopougon and Treichville University Hospitals. Serologic testing involved subjects under 30 in order to eliminate any immunization by vaccination against smallpox. Anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies were investigated by the ELISA method and Poxviruses including Monkeypoxvirus were searched by classical PCR and real-time PCR. RESULTS: Regarding the animal component, for 4930 night-traps, 256 micromammals were caught, ie a yield of 5.19%. Crocidura, Rattus, Lophuromys, Praomys, Mus and Mastomys were the most captured. 0.19% positive samples for Orthopoxvirus, no Monkeypoxvirrus was found. In humans, out of a total of 255 in subjects less than 30 years old, the prevalence for anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies was 4.93% with IgG levels ranging from 100 to 800. In the southern part of Côte d'Ivoire were 80% positives. In patients suspected of measles with measles and rubella virus negative and patients suspected of Molluscum contagiosum virus infection, the search for Orthopoxvirus was negative. The search for Molluscum contagiosum virus has been confirmed among 100% of patients suspected of being infected with Molluscum contagiosum. CONCLUSION: The circulation of Orthopoxviruses remains very weak in Ivory Coast without the confimation of the presence of Monkeypoxvirus through our study. However, the presence of Orthopoxvirus in Crocidura, a micromammal living in the immediate environment of humans requires the establishment of surveillance measures of this group of viruses.
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Syndou Meité. Étude épidémiologique, écologique et moléculaire du monkeypoxvirus en Côte d’Ivoire. Virologie. Université Félix Houphouêt-Boigny (Abidjan,Côte d'Ivoire); N° ORDRE 47, 2018. Français. ⟨tel-02884075⟩

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