Epidémiologie et transmission mère-enfant des entérobactéries productrices de bêta-lactamases à spectre étendu (E-BLSE) à Madagascar.

Abstract : The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a concern. Infection caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDR) worsens the prognosis of infected patients and increases the costs associated with their management. Among the MDRs, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB), especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) are the most frequently isolated. Antibiotic resistance may have an impact on morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) because of the potential for emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and the burden of bacterial infections in these countries. However, data on bacterial resistance are scarce or came from the hospital, for the great majority, in LMICs. In these settings, severe neonatal bacterial infections (sepsis, pneumoniae and meningitis) still represent the leading causes of death in newborns. Enterobacteriaceaeare responsible for a great part of these neonatal infections. Thus, investigating the transmission of ESBL-PE in newborns would make it possible to propose prevention strategies. This work was based on the BIRDY program (Bacterial Infections and Antibiotic Resistant Diseases among Young Children in Low-Income Countries). The first objective was to estimate the prevalence of colonization by ESBL-PE in pregnant women in Madagascar as well as the risk factors of this colonization. The results showed an overall colonization prevalence of 18.5% [95% CI 14.5-22.6]. Factors reflecting a higher socioeconomic level such as private access to drinking water and having a house are associated with colonization. The second objective of this work was to study the incidence of ESBL-PE colonization in community-based infants and to identify acquisition risk factors. The results reveal an overall incidence of ESBL-PE acquisition of 10.4 per 1000 newborn-days [95% CI: 8.0; 13.4]. In addition, we found that low birth weight adjusted HR 2.7 [95% CI 1.2; 5.9], cesarean section delivery adjusted HR 3.4 [95% CI 1.7; 7.1], maternal intake of antibiotic at delivery adjusted HR 2.2 [95% CI 1.1; 4.5] were risk factors for the acquisition of ESBL-PE. The third objective was to document neonatal infections. We found an incidence of neonatal infections of 30.6 cases per 1000 live births [95% CI: 23.4; 40.1]. Our results suggest that public health measures should focus on the improvement of pregnancy follow-up and early diagnosis of neonatal infections.
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Perlinot Herindrainy. Epidémiologie et transmission mère-enfant des entérobactéries productrices de bêta-lactamases à spectre étendu (E-BLSE) à Madagascar.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLV074⟩. ⟨tel-02078758⟩

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