Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease)

Abstract : Infectious bursal disease (also known as Gumboro disease) is an immunosuppressive viral disease specific to chickens. In spite of all the information amassed on the antigenic and immunological characteristics of the virus, the disease has not yet been brought fully under control. It is still prevalent in properly vaccinated flocks carrying specific antibodies at levels normally high enough to prevent the disease. Common causes apart, failure of vaccination against infectious bursal disease is associated mainly with early vaccination in flocks of unknown immune status and with the evolution of viruses circulating in the field, leading to antigenic drift and a sharp rise in pathogenicity. Various highly sensitive molecular techniques have clarified the viral determinants of antigenicity and pathogenicity of the infectious bursal disease virus. However, these markers are not universally recognised and tend to be considered as evolutionary markers. Antigenic variants of the infectious bursal disease virus possess modified neutralising epitopes that allow them to evade the action of maternally-derived or vaccine-induced antibodies. Autogenous or multivalent vaccines are required to control antigenic variants in areas where classical and variant virus strains coexist. Pathotypic variants (very virulent viruses) remain antigenically related to classical viruses. The difficulty in controlling pathotypic variants is linked to the difficulty of eliciting an early immune response, because of the risk of the vaccine virus being neutralised by maternal antibodies. Mathematical calculation of the optimal vaccination time and the use of vaccines resistant to maternally-derived antibodies have improved the control of very virulent viruses.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 4, 2019 - 3:35:45 PM
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A. Boudaoud, B. Mamache, W. Tombari, A. Ghram. Virus mutations and their impact on vaccination against infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease). Revue Scientifique et Technique- Office International des Epizooties, Oie Office International des Epizooties, 2016, 35 (3), pp.875-897. ⟨10.20506/rst.35.3.2576⟩. ⟨pasteur-02056379⟩

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